Russian Snipers of World War Two 

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Pavlichenko                                                                                  Pchelintsev



Stalin’s Sharpshooter’s Tool (reprinted from the Authors Article on Suite

The Soviet Russian Sniper rifle model M1891/30 Victor of Stalingrad, Warsaw, and the Berlin Wall

The Mosin-Nagant was adopted in 1891 by imperial Russia. The action of the rifle was developed by Colonel Serge Mosin of the Imperial Russian Army and the magazine by the Emile Nagant of Belgium. It was manufactured chronologically in France, Russia, the United State, Finland, China, and North Korea where it is still in production. The rifle, by nature of its 30 inch barrel, was the longest carried on the European battlefield of the First World War. It stood as tall as the men who carried it and was tipped with a 23 inch steel spike bayonet (which most modern armies of the time took to be an inefficient design). The rear sights were graduated in Arshins, an old Tsarist imperial measure of roughly 0.75 meters that was phased out in the twentieth century. Mosin-Nagant rifles are characterized by their massive action whose simplicity of design and operation almost completely soldier-proofed the weapon. It was an excellent design and would serve the Russian peasant soldiers of world war one and the subsequent Russian civil war well. It would continue on in the service of the winner of that war, the Red Army, for decades to come.


With the modernization of the Soviet Red Army in the 1930's the old reliable M1891 Mosin design was modified and designated the 1891/30. This redesign shortened the barrel to a more manageable length and changed the sights to a much better design graduated in meters. With the concept of having dedicated snipers assigned down to the platoon level, the Soviet Army needed a supply of sniper rifles. The 1891/30 was further redesigned to produce this creature. During the test firing steps of the manufacturing process used in making the standard 1891/30, rifles that shot particularly well were set aside for further conversion into the Soviet Army’s first dedicated sniper rifle. The rifle was expected to shoot 10 shots into 3.5 cm (1.38") at 100m, 7.5 cm (2.96") at 200m, 18 cm (7.09") at 400m, and 35cm (13.79") at 600m. A special machining and tapping process permitted the installation of an ingenious scope mount that is rock solid and preserves the use of the iron sights. The bolt handle was lengthened and bent nearly strait down to prevent it from hitting the attached scope. Two different scopes (the PU, and the PE/PEM) were used by these rifles, with the PU being the most prevalent.

Both the PU and PE scopes were issued from the 1930's through world war and remained in use postwar. The front and rear iron sights of this rifle are not removed when the telescope is attatched and these sights may still be used with the PU scope at ranges up to 2000 meters (2200 yards). The PU scope is 3.5 power fixed, with a 4 degree field of view at 30 feet, a 2.8 inch eye relief, is 6.59 inches long and adds 0.59 pounds to the weight of the rifle. A thumbscrew for lateral corrections (windage, drift and lead) is located on the left side of the scope. It has a thumbscrew on the top of the scope for setting angles of elevation. The elevation thumbscrew has 13 graduations, each one for 100 meters, allowing the PU scope to be dialed in anywhere from 100 to 1300 meters (110-1420 yards) for accuracy.  The PE scope was much the same as above, being constructed with a tube that was some four inches longer, having a diopter adjustment added, and a slightly higher magnification (4 power rather than the 3.5 of the PU).  Some 54,160 of the PE design were made 1932-1938, with the PU design numbering some 220,034 being produced 1942-1958. The original design of both scopes was by the German firm of Zeiss although actual production was by no less than 12 different Soviet firms. They both used a three bar ‘German’ reticle instead of the duplex reticle most modern scopes have.

The Russian M1891/30 Sniper rifle was issued down to the platoon level.  The top twenty ranked soviet snipers (by number of confirmed 'kills") of the Second World War have 7400 confirmed kills. The weapon was a favorite of these 'sniper aces' of the Soviets with Noble Sniper  Ivan Nikolayevich Kulbertinov of the (23rd separate ski brigade -499 kills)  Fyodor Matveyevich Ohlopkov (of the 1243rd rifle regiments-424 kills) and Vasiliy Grigorievich Zaytsev (1047th rifle regiment-248 kills) almost always being shown pictured with either PU or PE equipped M1891/30's. The recent Hollywood hit 'Enemy at the Gates’ portrayed Zaytsev during the Battle of Stalingrad. The Soviet army arguably had the most snipers in history with more than a hundred thousand carried on their roles, including over a thousand female snipers who were credited with a total of 12000+ confirmed kills during the war. The highest ranking female sniper (in history of any army) was Ludmila Mihaylovna Pavlichenko (of the 54th rifle regiment) with 309 kills while mainly using a Mosin 91/30 sniper.  It was used by the Communist Chinese Forces in the Korean conflict with Sniper Zhang Tao fang allegedly scoring 214 hits on UN troops in 32 days in 1952.

A number of Mosin rifles were captured in enemy hands in Vietnam and the guns are still seen in conflict in the middle east and Africa.

Being put into production in 1932 it was the standard issue sniper rifle of the Soviet Army and its allies until the introduction of the SVD Druganov in 1963.. The Druganov was not fully adopted by all units until as late at the 1980's with scoped M1891's still being carried in arsenals and war reserve stocks until just recently being liquidated. All of the recent imports are of the Soviet manufacture guns. These guns were

re-arsenaled than packed away for long-term storage should the situation arise that they be needed again. No doubt many of these old veterans are still held in armories of former Soviet bloc countries. These weapons are available for collectors in the United States. I recently purchased a M1891/30 Sniper with a faithfully reproduced PU scope from Interordanance. To read an extended review of this weapon, clickhere


  Soviet Small Arms and Ammunition (Both Russian and

English versions)-D.N. Bolotin


Sniper Rifles of Two World Wars

            William H Tantum IV





Lepskiy , Nikitin

Titov Antonov

Chekhov Rubakho Merkulov

Pavlichenko (top) , Zaitsev (bottom) , Kovshova (right)

Zaitsev (above in white parka and alone at right)

and Kvachantiradze


Top WW2 Snipers (Well, mostly WW2 anyway)

Not all of the scores are full, because of unknown data of 1945.
Kills Country       Name -Unit
542 FINN Lt Simo Hayha, Finnish Army Winter War 705 unconfirmed, All during Winter War- With Unscoped Rifle!
494 (also listed as 497) USSR Nikolay Yakovlevich Ilyin (50th Guards rifle regiment)
~500 USSR Ivan Mihailovich Sidorenko (1122nd rifle regiment)
489 USSR Ivan Nikolayevich Kulbertinov (23rd separate ski brigade ; 7th Guards airborne regiment)
456 [inc. 14 snipers] USSR Vladimir N. Pchelintsev
437 USSR Mihail Ivanovich Budenkov (59th Guards rifle regiment) until September 1944; ~100 - by machinegun
429 USSR Fyodor Matveyevich Ohlopkov (1243rd and 234th rifle regiments) not including machinegun score
425 USSR Fyodor Trofimovich Dyachenko (187th rifle regiment)
422 [inc. 70 snipers] USSR Vasiliy Ivanovich Golosov (81st Guards rifle regiment) until July 1943
422 USSR Stepan Vasilievich Petrenko (59th Guards rifle regiment) the data of September 1944
417 USSR Afanasiy Gordienko
*400~ Germany SS Major (Sturmbannfuhrer) Erwin Konig May have actually been invented by Soviet Propaganda machine to give Vasily Zaitsev a protagonist to fight at Stalingrad. Also referred to as Colonel Heinz Thorvald in some Soviet texts (namely Zaitsev's postwar book). If he existed would not only be the highest scoring SS ace (few exist) but the highest scoring German.
*400~ FINN Sulo Kolkka, took during the 105 day winter war May have actually just been a propaganda name of Simo Hayha
380 USSR Pyotr Alexeyevich Goncharov (44th Guards rifle regiment) until July 1943
                 378 CAN (WWI) Francis "Peggy" Pegahmagabow an Ojibwa Indian from Ontario, was the highest-scoring Canadian sniper of WWI
367 [inc. a general] USSR Semen D. Nomokonov sniper-only score
362 USSR Ivan Petrovich Antonov (160th separate rifle company)
349 USSR Abduhagi Idrisov (1232nd rifle regiment) until March 1944
346 + 1 tank , 8 strong points USSR Philipp Yakovlevich Rubaho (393rd separate marine batalion)
345 USSR Leonid Vladimirovich Butkevich (1331st rigle regiment) until July 1943
345 Germany Matthias Hetzenauer (Austrian) 3rd Mountain Div, all scored Between March 1944-May 1945 Died in 2004 at age 80, spent five years in Russian POW camp.
340 USSR Ivan Ivanovich Larkin (1183rd rifle regiment)
331 USSR Victor Ivanovich Medvedev (969th rifle regiment)
328 USSR Ilya Leonovich Grigoriev (252th rifle regiment)
324 USSR Ye. Nikolaev from 1941 to 1942
315 USSR Leonid Yakovlevich Butkevich until July 1943
313 USSR Zhambyl Yesheyevich Tulaev (580th rifle regiment)
309 [inc. 36 snipers] USSR Ludmila Mihaylovna Pavlichenko (54th rifle regiment) female -The first Soviet citizen to be received at the White House was Ludmilla Pavlichenko, who made a tour of the U.S. and Canada in 1943.
307 USSR Alexander Pavlovich Lebedev (1287th rifle regiment) until June 1943
307 USSR Vasiliy Alexandrovich Titov (301st separate artillery division)
305 USSR Ivan Pavlovich Gorelikov (29th Guards rifle regiment)
300+ USSR Gennadiy Iosifovich Velichko (1008th rifle regiment) until July 1943
300 USSR Moisey Timofeyevich Usik (547th rigle regiment) until October 1943
~300 USSR Nikolay Stepanovich Vedernikov (969th rifle regiment) the data including machinegun score
~300 USSR Natalia V. Kovshova and Maria Polivanova (528th rifle regiment) female team
298 [inc. 5 snipers]
+ 2 tanks by grenades
USSR Ivan Filippovich Abdulov (849th rifle regiment)
279 USSR Yakov Mihaylovich Smetnyov (210th rifle regiment)
279 USSR Vitaliy Mefodievich Bezgolosov (227th rifle regiment)
250+ USSR Mihail Stepanovich Sohin (44th Guards rifle regiment)
265 USSR Anatoliy Chehov
257 Germany Josef "Sepp" Allerberg, (Austrian) 3rd Mountain Division Eastern Front 1942-45 Wrote book Sniper on Eastern Front in 2005
250 USSR Fyodor Kuzmich Chegodaev (595th rifle regiment) until May 1942
248 + 5 captives USSR Ivan Ivanovich Bocharov (248th rifle regiment) until March 1944
245 USSR Mihail Ignatievich Belousov (1179th rifle regiment) until June 1943
242 USSR Vasiliy Grigorievich Zaytsev (1047th rifle regiment)
242 USSR Liba Rugova female
240 USSR Yegor Konstantinovich Petrov not including machinegun score
237 USSR Maxim Passar
226 USSR David Teboevich Doyev (1133rd rifle regiment)
220 USSR N.V. Nikitin
218 USSR N.F. Semyonov (169th rifle regiment) the data of June 1943
215 USSR Vasiliy Shalvovich Kvachantiradze (259th rifle regiment) until December 1944
209 Germany Bruno Sutkus, 68th Infantry Division fought with the Forest Brothers resistance in Lithuania in the 1950s then was sent to Siberia until 1990 when finally allowed to emigrate back to Germany. Wrote "Tagebuch eines Scharfschützen" [i.e. Inside the crosshair - the diary of a sniper] in 2003.
207 USSR Vahit Gazizovich Galimov (100th Guards rifle regiment)
200+ USSR Vasiliy Ivanovich Talalayev (12th Guards cavalry regiment)
~200 USSR Noj Petrovich Adamia (7th marine brigade)
200 Germany Friedrich Pein, 12th company Gebirgsjägerregiment 143 then in Jagerregiment 227 one of two snipers to have been awarded theRitterkreuz. Died in 1975.
200 USSR Nikifor Samsonovich Afanasiev (250th Guards rifle regiment) until March 1944
187 USSR M.A. Abbasov the data of the end of 1943
186 USSR Nikolay Galushkin the data of April 1943
180 Germany Gefreiter Meyer
170 USSR Studentov the data of November 1942
162 USSR N.P. Lepskiy
155 CCCP Alexander Andreyevich Kalinin (201st separate recon company) until December 1941
155 USSR Yekaterina Zhdanova female
150 UK (WWI) Billy Sing, ANZAC serving under British Army WWI 201 unconfirmed killes
150 USSR Pyotr Nikolayevich Sofronov (801st rifle regiment)
150 USSR Alexey Abdurahmanovich Kurbanov (282nd Guards rifle regiment) the data of 1943
148 CCCP Ivan Vasilievich Vazhyorkin (30th rifle regiment) the data of 1943
143 USSR Inna Semyonovna Mudretsova female
140 USSR Pyotr Ivanovich Golimenkov (1st rifle division) during 1941
134 USSR Ivan Dmitrievich Vezhlivtsev (1st rifle division) the data of February 1942
130 CCCP Grigoriy Semyonovich Gaponov (453rd rifle regiment) until December 1944
129 USSR Alexey Afanasievich Mironov until May 1943
126 CCCP Said Davydovich Aliyev (35th Guards rifle regiment) until June 1942
125 USSR Tatiana Ignatovna Kostyrina (691st rigle regiment) female
125 USSR Feodosiy Artyomovich Smolyachkov (14th separate motorized recon company)
120 Germany Ole Dir
119 USSR Leonid Vasilievich Ivanov
117 USSR Stepan Petrovich Loskutov (857th rifle regiment) the data of July 1942
116 USSR Georgiy Konstantinovich Fyodorov
116 CCCP Yanis Voldemarovich Vilhelms (92nd rifle regiment) until 1942
115 CAN (WWI) Henry Norwest, 50th Canadian Inf Battalion Western Front WWI Killed 1918 in action.
109 USA(Vietnam) Adelbert Waldron III Highest scoring US sniper ace in any war.
107 USSR N.P. Petrova female
103 USA(Vietnam) Charles Mawhinney USMC, Vietnam- highest Marine Corps scorer in history (has ten more confirmed kills over Gunny Hathcock)
102 USSR Dmitriy Alexeyevich Gulyayev (1289th and 1106th rifle regiments) the data of December 1942
100+ USSR Roza Shanina the data of 1944 ; female
~100 USSR Fyodor Alexeyevich Harchenko (13th rifle regiment)

CCCP I. Merkulov

CCCP H. Andruhaev

CCCP P.P. Chernomaz

CCCP N.A. Vakser

CCCP V.S. Bednyagin
100 SoAfrica (WWI) Neville Methven World War one British commonwealth sniper on the western front 1915-1918
98 CCCP Yegor Ivanovich Dergilev (605th rifle regiment)
94 USSR Aliya Moldagulova female
93 USA(Vietnam) Gunnery Sgt Carlos Hathcock Snr, USMC Vietnam 1960's-American
89 USSR Nina Lobkovskaya female
81 USSR Tatiana Chernova female
78 CCCP Pavel Yegorovich Shikunov (515th rifle regiment)
77 USSR Nikolay Vasilievich Prohorov
76 USSR Lidiya Gudovantseva female
75 CCCP Ivan Ivanovich Bogatyr (456th rifle regiment)
75 USSR Maria I Morozova female
73 CCCP Alexander Vasilievich Ivkov (629th rifle regiment)
65 USSR Yegor Ivanovich Myreyev
64 Germany Helmut Wirnsberger Another 3rd Mountain Division man
63 USA(Vietnam) Joseph T. Ward Vietnam U.S.M.C
63 USSR Alexandra Shlyahova female
60+ USSR Galina Rivkina female
~60 + 16 captives ; + 3 tanks CCCP Dmitriy Grigorievich Sergienkov (166th Guards rifle regiment)
~60 US (GWOT) Gunnery Sgt Jack Counglin USMC Accumulated in Somalia and Iraq Current living high scorer - Author of Shooter
~60  including 47 gunners in one battle in October 1918 US (WWI) Pvt Herman Davis, AEF WWI in France Died in 1922 of TB contracted during the war. Farmer from Arkansas
57 USSR P. Gryaznov
30 USSR Marie Ljalkova, Czech serving in Soviet Army WW2 Retired as a Colonel in the Czech Army, still alive at age 86 in Brno
For Reference, Post Vietnam Kills have been of a much lower number even though training and equipment has grown exponentially for example take the high scoring US Aces since 1973 =

  • Frank Grieci Desert Storm U.S.M.C -15 kills
    Joseph McElheny Desert Storm U.S.M.C -13 kills
    Dave Dayter Desert Storm U.S.M.C -3 kills
    Jeffrey N Tucker Panama U.S.M.C -3 kills


If you can add a data to this list, pleaseE-mail me.

Thanks for help to Yuri Nikitin, Alexander Abramov, John Baskeyfield.

Of course, the number of confirmed kills is much lower than the real number of kills. For example, F.Ohlopkov killed over 1000(!) enemy soldiers and officers.

On 1943, Soviet snipers included over 1000 woman-snipers; they were credited with 12000+ confirmed kills during the war.
Top ten of Soviet snipers have 4200 confirmed kills, top twenty of Soviet snipers have 7400 confirmed kills.

Sniper of 82nd rifle division Mihail Lysov shot down a dive bomber Ju87 in October 1941, using an automatic sniper rifle.

snipers Z.Popova and V.Yakovleva, the numbers of kills are unknown for me.

marine sniper Yelizaveta Mironova, the known number of kills is 34 however is often credited with as many as 100 by Soviet texts.



(above- Photo credited as being taken at Kursk 1943, two unidentified snipers with PU-Equipped M91/30s)

Postwar snipers, Soviet Army 1950's

The Mosin Nagant m1891/30 with PE scope was standard front line issue until 1963.


below- Finns using Captured Russian Weapons, including a PE equipped M91. 1945



German Snipers



Training Soviet Snipers (translated from Soviet Texts)


Mark v. lonsdeyl

By candidate in snipers must be assigned the member of the subdivision of the quick response, who showed the special habits of rotation with the rifles. These habits could be acquired by it in the course of competitions, on the hunting or during the appropriate preparation in the army.
Unfortunately, not all subdivisions are guided by these criteria with the selection of candidates in snipers. We met with the candidates, who never in the life held in the hands rifle. In some subdivisions to this post is assigned old, that have the excess weight of colleagues, because they cannot run or they do not manage after the younger and healthier colleagues.
Sniper must be in the outstanding physical form. He must run, climb on the walls and to get down on the rope on the level with the best soldiers; for it it is necessary to bear heavier weapon than in others in addition to standard equipment. A good sniper must also know how to check heart and respiration. If his heart madly stuchit and it does choke after heavy lift to the roof of building, navryad it is worthwhile to expect from it by the marker of shooting.
Therefore very frequently as a result of this poor selection sniper school is converted into the courses of initial military training.
Not one book can learn by marker to shooting from the rifle and it is not possible to find replacement to the long hours of occupations under the indefatigable eye of competent instructor. Those colleagues, who are actually interested in the mastery of sniper skill, must compulsorily participate in different kind competitions in shooting from the rifle. In the course of such competitions the sniper obtains the possibility to meet with the snipers from other departments; to compare outfitting, to exchange experience, methods; for it it is necessary to shoot, it obtains the precise estimation of its level even it sees under the action of stress and after competitions, at how it should work.

The primary training

The school of training snipers for the police subdivisions uses the weekly program, which includes the following objects,:

  • role and the place of sniper;
  • the selection of rifle and equipment;
  • preparation and bringing rifle to the normal battle;
  • the ballistics: internal, external and in the final trajectory;
  • connection;
  • basis by the marker of shooting;
  • shooting under the conditions of the limited illumination;
  • the tactics of snipers and field habits;
  • reconnaissance and the selection of purpose;
  • aiming point and fire upon command;
  • simultaneous fire/light is sniper ambush;
  • assault with the support of snipers;
  • observation and the collection of information;
  • conducting records;
  • storage and the economy of weapon.

All these objects and some others are described in the book "sniper against the sniper"; therefore we will examine one - even two - the day programs, used by us. These programs are intended for the experimental snipers, to which it is necessary to grind its craftsmanship.

Sniper exercises

Snipers are trained and as the separate, independent element, and as the part of the tactical assault team. At first we will discover the special features of preparation specially for the snipers.
Realistic approach is applied from the moment of the arrival of snipers to the shooting-range to their preparation. We begin with 100 - meter direction, where they occupy positions into the line. Several targets are established for each sniper in the field.
Instructors evaluate, as it is rapid, noiselessly and effectively sniper is prepared for the first shot - shot from the cold stem - to the most important shot of day each shot thoroughly is investigated, is evaluated and will be brought in into the sniper book. Targets can be signed and be stored by snipers for the report on the arrival into their subdivisions.

Exercise 1
Shot from the cold stem

Shooting is conducted according to two head targets to distance 100 it is meter from the position of lezha/s of support. Sniper can use a belt of weapon, support, sandbags or another property, which he can have during the operation. After command the sniper has the unlimited time for the production of shot to the center of the left target (see figure), the recharging and shot on the right target. With conducting of operation the sniper does not have possibility to produce ranging or verifying shot, thus, shot from the cold stem checks pointer and its armament and their ability to strike purpose from the first shot. The second shot is intended for the production in the sniper of quality to recharge weapon and to fire a shot automatically, in the case, when purpose did not fall after the first shot.
Shot of the cold stem must not differ from aiming point more than for 2,5 cm. this requirement is not unreal for the contemporary sniper systems and the ammunition. Pointers does not experience stress, has the unlimited time and ideal conditions.

Exercise 2

Being located in the same firing position (lezha/s of support), sniper has the unlimited time for the shooting of group of five shots. Purpose must have the small, but clearly distinguishable aiming point with the fulfillment of this exercise. It is intended for checking the stability of rifle, sight, ammunition and pointer. You remember the aphorism: "accuracy is the result of uniformity".
Group with a radius of more than 2,5 cm must worry good pointer with the outstanding weapon, but for the novice the result of less than 5 cm pointer with the average weapon is completely satisfactory. It is necessary to approach that so that the radius of group would be less than 2,5 cm.
The common reasons for spread are the weakened screws of fastening of sight and mechanisms, the unbalanced state of stem, malfunction fast and well - trigger mechanism and the insufficient habits pointer in the production of shot.

Exercise 3
Lying without the support

With the fulfillment of this exercise the snipers must produce five shots from the position lying without the support (without the supports and the sandbags) on the silhouette purpose of the reduced sizes. In the course of exercise we control the ability of the snipers of news fire with the use of a belt. With conducting of operation the firing position of sniper always cannot allow the use of a support.
Experimental snipers with the correctly urged belts, that have gloves and rifle jackets in the state to shoot out group with the result of close grouping less than 7,5 cm. less experimental pointers can be satisfied by the result less than 15 cm. convenience in the position and the control of respiration they play important role with the fulfillment of this exercise.

Exercise 4
Shooting upon command

Pointers charge five cartridges and one shot on the head target is produced for each command. This exercise is carried out from the position of lezha/s of support, in this case the sniper must shoot during second from the moment of supplying command. At the moment of supplying command the sniper has already been find on the position and aims into his target
Instructor follows the stable defeat of the center of target upon command. And again, good pointers must be packed in the circle 5 cm. At the same time the bullets, which fell into the circle with a diameter of 10 cm, will lead to "death" of enemy.

Exercise 5
Salvo fire

To each pointer in the line is assigned purpose (paper or three-dimensional head target). Reverse counting from 5 to 1 is given. To calculation 1 all snipers must simultaneously produce one shot. This exercise is repeated five times.
All targets must be struck by five shots into the center and each volley it must sound as one loud shot. Instructor controls shooting for the purpose to determine strelkov, which shoot too early or, on the contrary, it is too late. Such pointers "do not know their descent".
The salvo fire is important with conducting of ambush and in the situations, when several terrorists must be destroyed immediately. Premature shot can warn criminals and they will have time to engage shelters or to begin to kill hostages.
To the exercises "shooting upon the command" and the "salvo fire" must be given additional attention and training time, if we want to prepare professionals.

Exercise 6
Shooting to 200 it is meter

After displacement in the section of shooting to distance 200 it is meter snipers they must as fast as possible to prepare positions for the shooting of lezha/s of support. Using known adjustment of sights or aim-off, snipers produce five shots on the head target. Shooting can be achieved with the time constraint or upon command (see above).
It is not surprising, that the majority of police snipers never shot to the distances, which exceed 100 it was meter. Therefore this exercise gives the specific experience to them.
Acceptable result it is possible to consider entry into the center of head with the diameter of scattering 7,5 - 10 cm. some pointers will be satisfied simply by entry into head, whereas others can obtain the group of scattering of less than 5 cm in the diameter.

Exercise 7
Shooting to 300 it is meter

After displacement in the section of shooting to distance 300 it is meter the snipers produce five shots, taking aim into the region of breast. Firing position - lezha/s of support. To snipers must be given sufficiently time for the production of well-aimed shot. The firing distance 300 it is meter it is practically maximum for the police sniper in view of the fact that the identification of purpose on face at the long range is very hindered.
The trajectory of the bullet of caliber 308 Win passes on 38 - 43 cm lower than aiming line with the shooting to 300 it is meter, if rifle was led to the normal battle to 100 it was meter. Sniper must solidly know the values of the corrections, introduced in sight or arrangement of aiming point with the shooting at distance 200 and 300 it is meter.
With the shooting under the ideal conditions to distance 300 is meter standard it is the group of entries to the center of the breast with a diameter 12 - 15 cm. the wind with a speed of 18 km/h (5 m/s), which blows at the angle of 90 degrees to the plane of file, it slants bullet on 12 - 17 cm from the aiming point with the shooting to distance 300 it is meter.

Exercise 9
Shooting after the load

Snipers are advanced by run from boundary 200 it is meter to boundary 100 it is meter they conduct fire according to purpose five by shots rapidly from any position with the use of a support. Instructor evaluates the action of stress and heavy respiration on the results of shooting.
Squeezings, the lifts of housing from the position lying or lifts on the rope also they can be used for quickening of respiration and pulse.

The tactical exercises

These occupations are to a series of the exercises, which include 1 2 shots each, jettisoned in different and unknown distances. Shooting to the unknown distances is the integral part of training sniper. For it constantly it is necessary to define distances both for determining the adjustment of sights and for razveddoneseniy.
Instructor must manifest the maximum of fantasy with the preparation of such occupations, at the same time they must include: shooting at the purposes, which are been located near the hostages, shooting with the large angle of sightings, shooting through the open windows, the shooting at the purposes, which are located in the machines, on the moving purposes, to the turned purposes and shooting under the conditions of human crowd. Each situation must require of the sniper of the selection of position, identification of purpose, transmission of information and then shooting only upon command.
Tactical exercises can be carried out by one sniper, pair or subdivision of snipers. You approach that so that the occupations would be interesting, diverse and realistic.

Experimental exercises

The designation of such exercises consists in giving information about the behavior of bullet under the varied conditions to sniper.
This can include: shooting through different types of glass and obstacle at different angles for determining the deflection of bullets. But also the tests of the piercing power of bullets with the shooting at the barricades, the gelatinous blocks, the automobile doors and the wind glass and so forth shooting under the conditions of wind to the long range also can be related to such exercises.
All results of such exercises must be documented and photographed on video for the subsequent generations of the snipers, who can not have time or necessary materials for conducting their own experiments.

Exercises in the composition of the subdivision

Since the sniper is the integral part capturing team, exercise in the composition of subdivision they must be included in the program of training sniper.
The scenario of this exercise can be the following: sniper is present on the preliminary instruction, is selected place for the position, it determines possible purposes, transfers information to the control center and expects command to opening fire. The shot of sniper can serve as signal at the beginning of assault or from it simply it is required to ensure the fire cover outstanding capturing team and to continue the transmission of information.
Capturing team must be completely assured in the ability of the sniper of news fire on the purposes, situated in immediate proximity of the soldiers of group. This confidence can arise only when the colleagues of group see high degree of accuracy and professionalism, whom possesses the sniper.
It is necessary to always assign at least two snipers to each terrorist, and this in turn leads to the fact that it is necessary to give considerable attention to the production of the ability to conduct simultaneous fire.


Mark v. lonsdeyl


Prepared and utilized mainly by different military formations, sniper plays the key role in the demoralization and the disabling of live enemy target. There are many publications, dedicated to the history of sniper motion and to their application in different military conflicts. The evolution of police snipers by many is obliged to that enormous quantity of information and data on the tactics and to technology of application, gotten in servicemen. However, this chapter is limited to the application of police snipers and to those very specific responsibilities and parameters, within the framework of which them it is necessary to work.
The role of snipers in a matter of the permission of crisis situations is vitally important; therefore special attention must be given to their selection and preparation. The terms of snayper/kontrsnayper are interconnected with each other. Kontrsnayper simply indicates additional step by means of the effective application of approaches and methods of operations in cases when those suspected can have an experience of sniper operations, obtained by them during the military service or from other sources. Sniper must remain unnoticed for the people in the region of crisis situation, and also remember about the fact that who - that is also, possibly, occupied with the same matter, as it, but on other side of barricade. Sniper command consists of pointer and observer. Very frequently the roles of observer is not given value; however, it plays very important role. And despite the fact that we adhere to the concept "snayper/snayper", for the first time developed in the marines OF THE USA, each in the sniper pair has special responsibilities. Each must be completely prepared for the accomplishment of the basic objective of sniper and each must have its own weapon. During the prolonged operations the need for for the first number replacing weapon can arise. In addition to pistols is recommended the having of compact short-range weapon, for example, THE MR - 5, CAR - 15 and so forth it must be used by both numbers alternately with the fulfillment of the responsibilities of observer (into whose of responsibility enters providing safety of sniper).
Despite the fact that recently the situation changed, in the past very frequently some agencies or subdivisions appointed to the post of the snipers of less experienced or undesirable people in order "to remove them further". This is equivalent to shot into its own foot. Not one person must be drawn on the operation, until minimum qualification is obtained, regardless of the fact what preparation it obtained prior to the arrival into the subdivision.
The basic responsibilities of the members of sniper command are:


  1. Ensures protection and fire cover for the subdivision. Note: remember that the optical sight or telescope have the limited field of sight. And when sniper reports: the "left side of the building under the control", usually he sees only several windows.
  2. It gathers information in the limits of its sector and transfers it to the control center and to the commander of subdivision.
  3. It destroys that suspected upon command or in the case of the appearance (in his opinion) of real threat for the life.
  4. It covers approaches and withdrawal routes.


  1. Provides protection for the sniper.
  2. Observation of the region of conducting operation and the surrounding locality conducts, reports the results of observation to sniper.
  3. Observer determines correction fors weather conditions or for the wind and he helps sniper in fire adjustment.
  4. It substitutes the sniper, when interruption or leisure as a result of the tiredness is necessary for it.
  5. It follows the fact so that the sniper would not be distracted without the need.

Command of snipers - this of eye and the ears of control center and of capturing team. Report the position of those suspected and their movement. Also report about those places, where you see no one. If you have a good survey of room, it is very important to know for capturing team, where there are no criminals, just as where they there is.

Selection of the candidates

Candidate, selected for the sniper command, must possess the specific qualities:

  1. Accuracy: sniper must excellently manage weapon. The possibility of the presence of hostages and crowd of idlers can require less than one angular minute in the absence of preparation time shot with the accuracy.
  2. Inthe mstvennye abilities: despite the fact that personnel of capturing team must be excellently prepared in conducting of precise fire, occur the situations, when it is necessary to shoot reflector, in the excited state in order to save its or whose - or life. However, sniper must kill quietly and selectively, striking if necessary the thoroughly selected targets. During the prolonged operation the sniper can "be introduced" to that suspected - observing, as he moves, eats and so forth, and then either it obtains the "green light", based on the data about the threat for the life of hostages or it observes it, that are prepared to kill hostage, after which he must shoot at it.
  3. Patience: the need for being located on the position in the prolonged period in the conditions of cold weather can be required from the sniper.
  4. Habits of the movement: sniper must be sufficiently experienced in questions of reserved movement and masking.
  5. Intellect: sniper must have wide knowledge in different regions, including ballistics, the alignment of optical sights, weather factors and so forth additionally, it it must be very observant so as to gather information in the region of conducting operation. It must possess resoluteness, be confident in itself, have sensible reason and be reasonable.

Note: observer must possess the same qualities.


Snipers must occupy their positions immediately on the arrival into the region of conducting operation after report about the readiness and after the instruction of komandira/komandnogo post. This is done in order as fast as possible to begin the collection of information and to carry out restraining of those suspected.

Weapon and the equipment

The following armament and equipment is proposed as the necessary minimum.
Weapon. Rifle is the integral part of the sniper, which directly increases the possibilities of subdivision. This is precise surgical tool. Independent of the abilities of sniper, a deficiency in the proper property is weak component in the chain. Special attention must be given to the selection of the suitable weapon. Standard is 308 the caliber, along which are accumulated many tests given as a result of long years. However, are other calibers, whose use is determined by the firing distances. For the subdivision, which expects the appearance of situations when necessary to conduct fire on the long range, excellent selection will be "mm Of magnum and 300 winchester Of magnum. Also, MakMilan performs excellent sniper systems, including 12,7 mm, which are completely simple and convenient in the rotation. That prepared of pointers easily can dostich' stability in the delivery of fire from this system to the distance to 1300 it is meter. As the additional tasks such systems can be used for the cessation of automobiles or destruction of explosive devices on the safe removal. The thorough knowledge of its own weapon and its possibilities is the most important requirement.
Sniper system, as a minimum, must have:

  1. To bed, prepared from the fiberglass or the composite material.
  2. The heavy stem (is decreased the vibration, which influences the flight of bullet).
  3. Adjustable descent of hook.
  4. Rapidly adjustable belt.
  5. Supports.
  6. Lock, which has the high degree of the surface treatment and the polished parts fast and well - trigger mechanism.
  7. Dull surface.
  8. Optical sight with the variable multiplicity. On many sights with the multiplicity of yaKh - 20Kh is used the multiplicity of 'Kh. Large multiplicity is used for the observation. Is not recommended the using of multiplicity greater than 9Kh for the shooting. With a great increase the stability problem of the field of the sight of sight appears and the action of mirage grows. Optics must be it prosvetlennoy(rekomenduyetsya dual reticle), resistant to the misting, have a device for determination of distance and mechanisms of the introduction of correction fors the varied conditions of shooting. Sight must possess good light-collective characteristics. The device of fastening to the rifle must be intended for the work under the severe conditions.

Equipment. In addition to the usual tactical equipment, nosimomu by all colleagues of subdivision, the sniper and observer must have the following property:

  1. The intended for the work under the severe conditions case for each system, which can be placed after the back with the lift on the rope or on the wall, have belts for the retention with the creeping. It must be waterproofed and protect weapon from the impacts. It also must have departments for the ammunition, equipment, etc.
  2. Warm, water-resistant clothing, boots and the thermal insulation rug, which adapts in the case, when command is forced to remain practically fixed on the firing position in the long period in the cold season. Remember about the fact that the sniper command must be autonomous.
  3. Reliable, high(ly)-multiple telescope or binoculars.
  4. The rapidly put on objects of masking for themselves and the equipment, which include covers from the sacking, veil for face, make-up and so forth many agency use suits of the type "Gills".
  5. Adaptations for the lift to the roofs, the trees, etc.
  6. Compact, concentrated food ration with the high content of proteins.
  7. Compass.
  8. Compact, multifunctional tool, which has adaptation for cutting the wire.
  9. What - or bag for the the general of nuzhd(perenoska of the form of clothing, coffee, etc.).
  10. Think over the use of different types of the form of clothing. The fact is that there does not exist universal form for the varied conditions of locality, illumination and so forth is recommended to have on one set of outfit for the actions in the city, scaffolding and desert. Thus, you will be ready to actions practically under any conditions.

* as it was said, the property enumerated above is addition to the usual collection (bulletproof vest, radio station, flask, etc.). Thorough attention must be given to the sizes and the weight of additional property so that it would not forge the action of subdivision. Each situation will determine, what property is required. However, you be assured in the fact that you have entire necessary.

Storage. It is necessary to pay to correct storage of weapon a constant attention. Pyramids for storing the weapon must not allow the presence of humidity. You do not store weapon in the cases for the carrying-over in the prolonged period. This is especially important for the rifles with the freely floating stems.


It is possible to name that basic requirement for the trainings so that they would be maximally realistic. Are given below some key moments, utilized with organization and conducting of trainings.

  • despite the fact that the preparation in several specialties is very important, snipers they must have sufficiently training time for the occupations in its specialty;
  • do not forget to assign to snipers place in accordance with their specific character in the course of conducting the tactical exercises (conducting observation, fire support so forth.);
  • practice conducting occupations on the evacuation of injured colleague, on the actions with the encounter with the enemy and on the assault of building in combination with the field service firing of snipers; in the real life you can encounter analogous situations and use the technology, which you never thus far mastered - not the best version in this case.
  • practice the fulfillment of exercises to the development of visual memory; by the versions of such exercises they are observation during the specific time of the specific quantity of objects with their subsequent restoration on the memory on the paper, and also the interrogation the commander of the subdivision of colleagues on the distinctive qualities of key objects and local objects, which were encountered to subdivision in the course of training day.
  • the following exercise helps with the development of the coordination of hands and eyes and helps eyes "to see more rapidly"; in the course of this exercise two balls (or others being suitable of object), painted in the different colors are used. One color corresponds to left hand, another - right. Balls place into the container and on one rush trained. The latter must catch ball by the corresponding hand. The rate and the speed of ball increase with the acquisition of experience.
  • practice conducting occupations on the masking and the reserved movement under the observation. This relates also to the urban subdivisions.
  • you conduct exercises through the collection of information by observation. In this case assign enemy and compile the plan of his actions. This appears grow prettier by checking the ability of sniper to note key moments in the course of observation. Require from it report on the radio of the details, which refer to the matter.
  • in the course of occupations use the situations, in course of which the threat for the life of hostages or colleagues appears and making the decision to shoot is required from the sniper or not. Evaluate its reaction in the course of summing up of the results of occupation.
  • you approach that so that the training time would be used both for the instruction in marker to shooting, registering the results and for finalizing of the methods of movement, equipment for positions and tactical actions. You remember that the skill to effectively use its weapon is basic for the sniper. Weapon must satisfy requirements and sniper must know how accurately to shoot it. The insufficient attention, given to this, leads to the fact that the sniper becomes professional in the incorrect fulfillment of one or other method or another. After sniper learned to satisfactorily manage weapon, it is necessary to pass to the shooting from different positions, after loads, under the conditions of the limited time and under the action of other stress factors, which can be encountered in the real situation.
  • check the correctness of the pressure of trigger by sniper with the aid of the coin, assumed on the stem also of the blank shot; after shot the coin must remain on the stem. By very useful is equipment of store drill cartridge in the course of shooting. This method can be used, also, for the instruction in actions with the appearance of delays.
  • you conduct exercises with the sniper commands of other subdivisions, with which there is an understanding about the mutual backing. During the prolonged operations, especially in the cold time of the year, snipers it is necessary to change. If this situation arises, it is very important so that the new change of snipers would know situatsiyu(kartochki of distances, observers log, instruction and so forth.) and it was able to smoothly conduct replacement.
  • in the course of advancement to the object correctly apply methods and approaches of movement (using sheltered from the fire routes and with the fire support).

Note: The use of sport pneumatic rifles can it will essentially increase the professional level of sniper. They can be used practically in any situations and they make it possible to considerably decrease ammunition consumption. The targets, utilized for the shooting, must decrease to the sizes, which correspond to distances.

Sniper book

Both during the trainings and during the operations imperatively one should keep records in the sniper book. The main divisions of book are:

  1. Date.
  2. Quantity of shots.
  3. Type of ammunition, the weight of bullet, etc.
  4. Visibility conditions and weather at the moment of shooting (fog, rain, the sun, temperature, humidity, wind, etc.).
  5. What - either problem with the weapon or the ammunition.
  6. Each purpose must be confirmed by signatures pointer and senior commander and is hemmed into the matter. Book also can contain the precise diagrams of purposes and the distribution of bullets on them.

Sniper book is intended for three basic tasks: it makes possible for sniper to adapt rifle to the special conditions and the distances in the region of incident in real time; it makes it possible to more thoroughly study its weapon and its possibilities, and it also serves as the proof of professionalism in the law court.


As it was indicated earlier, there is an extensive information about the possibilities of cartridge 308 of caliber. The basic recommended type of bullet is the bullet with the opening in the head part, shell with the conical tail section, a weight 168 - 175 boundaries (10,7 - 11,2 grams). Also a good selection are 7 mm Of magnum, 300 winchester Of magnum and 50-1 calibr. to talk about the ballistics - nevertheless, which to argue about the religion, especially because there is an enormous quantity of excellent books and tables, which in detail describe this object. We do not intend to speak about the ballistics in this volume. Most important is the use of qualitative systems of arms, in which you are assured and practical work with them until you become professional. Experiment with the different ammunition in order to determine, what best anything they be suitable the rifle and for different situations (for example, for the shooting through the glass-, to the long range, etc.). After you were determined with producer and series of ammunition, imperatively one should stock up the large party of such ammunition and store them in the hermetically sealed corking. Even in one producer the cartridges of different series differ in their characteristics, although it is insignificant.

Weather conditions

Military snipers solidly know about how influence weather conditions the flight of bullet. Despite the fact that they are trained in destruction of targets, find on the distances to 1500 it is meter, the same principles are applicable also to the snipers of police subdivisions. Despite the fact that in the majority of the cases is necessary to conduct fire on the distances, which do not exceed 70 it is meter, it is necessary to remember about the possibility of delivery of fire and to the long range. It is desirable to say in the addition that the snipers of police subdivisions must be ready to high-precision shots, especially in the situations with the seizure of the hostages, when for purposes of the rescuing of their life for sniper it is necessary to conduct fire according to the head of terrorist, partially closed with hostage. The small effect, exerted by the specified weather conditions to the accuracy of shooting, can not be taken into the attention in cases when it is necessary to neutralize single criminal or to ensure the fire support for capturing team. But, when is necessary accuracy less than into the angular minute, this effect can have decisive importance. Some considerations on the basic weather conditions are given below.

Note: Despite the fact that in the majority of the cases the police snipers do not conduct fire on the long range, we prepare snipers for the delivery of fire at the distance to 1000 it is meter with the use of both the optical and opened of sights the fact is that the long range require of the sniper of the most thorough observance of principles by the marker of shooting. Wind effect, press of hook, even beating of heart, considerably increase errors with the shooting to the long range. If sniper manufactures in himself habit to use the same principles with the delivery of fire to 70 it is meter, that also it is meter with the delivery of fire to 1000, then absolutely precise shooting becomes standard.


  1. Wind exerts the significant influence on the bullet, which is increased proportional to distance as a result of an increase in air resistance with a decrease in the velocity of bullet, which in the final analysis leads to the loss of stability.
  2. Wind exerts significant influence also on the sniper. The stronger the wind, the more difficult it is to preserve the steady position of weapon.
  3. For the introduction into the sight of correction for wind it is necessary to determine its speed and direction. For this there are several methods:

    a. flag. Angle in the degrees between the flag and the pole is divided into constant number 4. Result gives the approximate speed, expressed in the miles an hour. If there is no flag, such as light predmet(puchok of dry grass, the lump of paper and so forth.) it can be from the height of arm. The point of impact by hand, we obtain the angle between the hand and the body, which so we divide by 4 and obtain approximate speed.
    b. wind drift and sensory organs can be used, if other methods are not applicable. The wind of 3-5 miles an hour slightly oshchushchayetsya on face; 5-8 miles an hour - leaves on the trees are located in the constant motion; 12-15 miles an hour - small trees begin to swing.
    v. the mirage (wave of evaporations or the light reflection from it is layer air with the different temperature and the density, seen with the naked eye during the warm sunny day). With the aid of the optical sight the mirage is visible during the colder days. The higher the multiplicity of sight, the more easily it is to observe mirage. Although the specific practice is required, the correct estimation of mirage makes possible for sniper accurately to evaluate and to introduce the appropriate corrections into the sight. The diffraction of light, which is produced by heterogeneous air density, is other side of the effect of mirage. Depending on atmospheric conditions the diffraction can cause the shift of the outline of purpose in the direction of the motion of mirage. For example, if mirage dvizhetsya from right to left, purpose will seem located slightly more left than its real position. Pointers it can aim only into the outline of the purpose, perceived by its eye; therefore it should aim into the point, which is located slightly in the side from the center this of tseli(pri one must take into account wind effect on the bullet).

The method, which uses the clock dial (see diagram) is the standard method of the classification of wind effect. The crosswind of the same force is considered that the slanting wind slants bullet two times less, than.
A change in the wind direction at different distances is the following moment. For example, at distance 300 is meter wind it can blow to the left - to the right at a rate of 5 miles an hour, at the same time it can blow to the right - to the left at a rate of 10 miles an hour at the point of the entry of bullet. Pointers it must know how to distribute difference with the determination of wind effect.
A significant change in wind speed within the limits of the populated area is the region, which easily falls out from the attention. You can be located in the sheltered from the wind place and not oshchushchat' its presence, while purpose can find on the street or in the exposed ground, where high wind blows. The case, when sniper is located on the multistory building, is especially complex situation. Wind force on the earth can have zero value, in the time as on roof 25 - storeyed building the wind can reach the speed of 50 miles an hour.
Temperature renders the specific effect on the point of the entry of bullet. Thus, an increase in the temperature of air by 20 degrees F ('В°S) increases the initial velocity of bullet by approximately 15 m/s. Independent of distance sniper must introduce correction with value into one angular minute for every 20 degrees F ('В°S) of the deviation of temperature from the normal. With an increase in the temperature the adjustment of sight decreases, with a temperature decrease - it increases.
Question: Many whether of you, that read this book, did carry out trainings of snipers in the period "spring - summer - autumn", when temperatures were moderated? Many whether of you did conduct trainings at temperatures lower than zero degrees, when the temperature of air on the wind does reach 100В° F lower than zero? As can be seen from tables, ballistic data radically differ for the temperature 85В° F (30 sВ°) higher than zero and for the temperature 35В° F (5 sВ°) lower than zero. You remember, your shot from the cold stem is most important. Many whether of you do know, where will fly your bullet at different temperatures? This again sends away us to the previous pages, where is indicated the need for the fact that the sniper subdivision must be autonomous, capable of accomplishing tasks under the severe weather conditions. Many of you can in this case say: "we cannot effectively work at such extreme temperatures". Never you speak never "". In contrast this statement it is possible to give many examples from the life. You will ask about this of snipers from those places, where the temperature 40В° F (4 sВ°) lower than zero is usual.

Action of temperature on the initial velocity of the bullet of 308 calibers


Note: A change in the speed of bullet on 15 m/s corresponds to the deviation of the point of entry for 1 angular minute with respect to the height.


The process of training sniper includes different stages, however, in it is necessary to suggest to candidates principles with the marker of shooting and to ensure the necessary quantity of ammunition and training time. Until sniper reaches the acceptable level of the accuracy of shooting, training other habits and skills does not have a sense. Not so there is much benefit in that sniper, who can successfully accomplish all required tasks, but one cannot strike purpose if necessary. Some basic principles are given below the marker of the shootings, which are also applicable for training of other specialists, armed by long-barrelled weapon.

The component parts of the well-aimed shot

Steady position

  1. Position of the non-firing hand: the shank of weapon is located in the fork BY THE "V", formed thumb and other fingers. Retention must be lung, with the small pressure in the direction of butt.
  2. Position of the butt: it is located in the cavity of the shooting arm, which retains its motion as a result of return and helps the retention of steady position.
  3. Position of the shooting hand: pistol handle is located into "V". You will place indicating finger to the trigger in such a way that it would not render the action on the position of weapon with the pressure. Remaining three fingers render light pressure in the direction of butt so that the latter would remain in the cavity of arm, decreasing by such modus operandi of return.
  4. Position of the shooting elbow: it is important for the balance. Precise position is determined by the utilized firing position (from the elbow, costing, lying and so forth.) and must ensure the arrangement of arms on the same level.
  5. Position of the non-firing elbow: it is arranged strictly under the weapon for the convenient and steady position. In the case, when it is necessary to conduct fire in the wide sectors, along the moving purposes or along the purposes with different angle of sightings, elbow must not be located on the support.
  6. Contact of cheek with the butt: assuming the monotonous retention of weapon and position each time, neck pointer weakens; cheek must return each time in one and the same position. This position must ensure the natural retention of aiming line and the necessary removal of eye from the sight. This ensures the monotony of aiming. Use one and the same pressure for the gallant of weapon, cheek each time.
  7. Support: use in the presence an artificial support. If support is absent, weapon is retained due to the bones, but not muscles. With the use of a support do not locate weapon directly on the rigid surface. The non-firing hand must be located between shank and thrust face. This is necessary for absorbing the vibration, caused by the motion of bullet along the bore, which leads to the significant the deflection of bullets from the purpose.
  8. Weakening of the muscles: The correctly utilized support makes it possible pointer to weaken the majority of muscles. This occurs with the use of an artificial support or support due to the bones. Support due to the muscles leads to the fluctuations of weapon.
  9. Natural aiming point: when you assume firing position, orient weapon in the direction of target. Then accept such position, with which the weapon and sight mechanisms find on one line with the aiming point. With the correct use of a support and the contact of cheek with the butt the sight mechanisms naturally will be combined with the purpose. The flies on the purpose necessary to use efforts and support of muscles after the shot of muscle weaken for the retention, causing the deviation of fly to the position of natural aiming point. You will combine this point with the desired aiming point on the purpose for averting the motion. Pointers it must be completely weakened, being located on the position and after each shot sight mechanisms they must again return to the purpose with the condition for fulfilling all requirements.


  1. The full sight. For the open sight this position is achieved by the levelling off of fly in the cut of aiming lath on the height and in the direction. Fly in this case is located on the purpose. During the aiming you must distinctly see fly. Sighting notch in this case must be several diffuse.
  2. It will reveal with the correct position and the contact of cheek with the butt of pointers in the course of time that the position of the full sight will be reached automatically.

Holding of the breath

  1. There are two methods of holding of the breath:
    a. natural respiratory pause. It occurs after the expiration of air from the lungs directly before the inhalation. It must be precisely natural. This method most is suitable for the conditions, when sniper has sufficiently time for the production of shot.
    b. with the rapid rate of fire or with the delivery of fire at several purposes of pointers simply detains respiration before the pressure of trigger.
  2. Regardless of the fact what method is used, holding of breath is very important element by the marker of shooting. The motions of chest upward and downward with the respiration lead to the displacement of weapon in the vertical plane.
    3. respiratory cycle lasts approximately 4 - 5 seconds. Between the cycles there is a pause by duration 2 - 3 seconds. This pause can be prolonged to 5 seconds. Respiratory pause is more acceptable method, since the muscles, which participate in the respiratory process, at the moment of pause are weakened and diaphragm is not stressed. Respiratory pause must be natural and it must not artificially stay. If pause too is involved, body suffers from the scarcity of oxygen and sends signals into the brain for the renewal of respiration. Furthermore, an oxygen deficiency leads to the fact that the eyes begin to lose focus. 8 - 10 seconds - this is a maximally acceptable period for the respiratory pause.


  1. Descent - this is the independent action of indicating finger on the trigger, which is accompanied by the constantly being increased pressure, directed strictly back to the moment of shot. There are two types of the descent: smooth and interrupted.
  2. Any unexpected motion, uneven press of hook and so forth can lead to the deflection of bullet from the purpose.
  3. Descent must be mastered until the habits of its realization not are fixed in subconsciousness. The moment of shot must be unexpected for pointer. If the moment of shot is known, operates the natural reflex, directed toward the compensation for sound and return of shot.

Check the absence of the inclination of your weapon. This deficiency is very disseminated and leads to the deflection of bullets to the left - downward or to the right - downward. Have a habit to check the position of the weapon before each shot.
In conclusion it is possible to say that entire process as a whole includes the series of the special methods, which are carried out reflector with a sufficient practice. Basic formula is very simple: to accept correct firing position, to take aim and to harvest trigger. It is very important to understand that the neglect of basic principles by the marker of shooting leads to the oversights. For example, with the shooting the cartridge of caliber 223 any error in aiming leads to an increase in the deflection of bullet 50 times (error in 2,5 mm at distance 25 it is meter it leads to the deflection of bullet on 152 cm with the shooting to distance 300 it is meter).

Weapon with the optical sight

With the use of optical sights all given above principles soblyudayutsya. However, clearness and magnification in the images, reached with the aid of optics, facilitate work pointer. With the use of optics of pointers it must use another technology of the use of contact of cheek with the butt in view of the fact that the position of head with the shooting with optics somewhat higher than with the shooting without it this is very urgent for the weapon with the butt of the type of Monte Carlo. If rifle does not have this butt, then it is possible to prepare cover plate from the durable foam and tapes or from anything similar. It is very important so that the weapon would be convenient for pointer. Are given below some differences in the use of the open and optical sights:

  1. Removal of pupil. Eye must be located at removal 7,5- of 9,5 cm from the eyepiece of sight for providing of safety with the shot and the complete field of sight.
  2. Shady effect. During the aiming it is necessary to attain that the field of sight would be completely clean, without the shadows. The incorrect removal of eye leads to the appearance in the field of the sight of shadow in the form of circle, which prevents observation and decreases the field of sight. If eye is located incorrectly with respect to the principal sight axis, this leads to the appearance of a shadow in the form of demilune along the sides of the field of the sight of sight. As a result of bullet they are slanted to the side, opposite to shadow.
  3. Parallax. This is the optical distortion, which appears with the nonconformity of the axes of the lenses of optical instrument. Parallax leads to the significant deviation of the point of entry from the aiming point. For determining the parallax you will install weapon into the machine tool and direct cross lines of sight into the remote point. Without bringing down focusing, fall back from the weapon to small time interval. Then occupy the same position and you will look into the sight. If cross lines is located in the same position, then everything in the order. But if there is deviation, this means that the phenomenon of parallax occurs.

Determination of the distance

Even with the presence of range-finder and sight, equipped with compensator, the skill to determine distance is the very most important question of training sniper. There are several methods of determination of distance, such, as determination from the map, with the aid of the card of distances, with the aid of the range-finder, by observing the deflections of bullets, determination with the aid of eye and value of object. The basic moments, which relate to the police snipers, are examined below.

Determination of distances in a visually estimated manner

This method is most accessible and expedient. Distance in this case is determined via postponement in the locality of sections on 100 it is meter. At the distance to 500 you is meter can with the adequate accuracy break distance in the sections on 100 it is meter (for the long range you will determine the middle of distance, you will calculate, how many sections on 100 it is meter it is plotted to it and then result multiply 2 times). With this method is interconnected the method of determination of distance from the value of objects, which can refine your calculations. This method requires the knowledge of the dimensions of any object at the specific distance. Such objects, as deer, cow, specific species of trees, windows and especially the figure of man appear differently at different distances. Sniper must improve the habits of determination of distances and manufacture his own formulas and methods. For example, measuring the parameters of the windows of buildings or the distance between the headlights of different automobiles, etc., and calculating the number of centimeters between them at the known distances, we obtain the outstanding method of determination of distances. Using the method of determination of distances from the relative sizes and the degrees of the visibility of the separate elements of objects, characteristic for the region of actions, you can recheck yourselves with the aid of the method of the postponement of 100-meter sections. Occupations on the shooting-range with the known distances are ideal time for the acquisition of these habits. Usually each firing line is noted in the locality at intervals into 100 it is meter. Use the purposes, which designate personnel, the (srednyaya figure of man is approximately 75 cm from the belt to the top). With the possibility use different methods for rechecking of results.

Cards of the distances

The use of cards of distances is very effective, when allows time situation. As an example can serve film on the object indicated, which during the specific time find under the observation. In the cards the characteristic orientators, which make possible for sniper to rapidly and accurately evaluate ranges to targets, are reflected. The card of distances is comprised relative to the firing position of sniper and purpose. On the card are indicated the distances to the easily identified local objects of such, as separate trees, lantern posts are the entrance doors of structures and so forth with the appearance of a purpose its arrangement relative to the nearest local object, substituted to the card of distances, it will immediately indicate precise distance to sniper.

Factors, which influence determination of the distance

  • Objects with the straight, clear outlines seem located nearer, than the objects with the diffuse, illegible outlines, such as the group of trees or bushes.
  • The purpose, which has sharp contrast with respect to the background seems located nearer, than in reality.
  • Locality considerably influences the range accuracy. With the observation upward along the slope the distances seem more and, on the contrary, with the observation downward along the slope they seem less than in reality. Smooth, flat surface (sand, water) draws near purposes. And vice versa, broken ground creates the illusion of the fact that the purposes are located further. With conducting of the observations through the valley or the large low place, which are visible completely, distances seem more. The narrow field of sight also moves away objects (lanes, twisting streets, tropes in the forest tracts, etc.).
  • Illumination conditions also create the illusion of the fact that the objects seem located nearer or further than this be in reality. The better the purpose is illuminated, the nearer it seems. The purpose, observed with daylight, seems located nearer, than observed under the conditions of fog, dust or rain. The position of the sun with respect to the purpose also has great significance. If the sun located after your back, purpose seems nearer. With the arrangement of the sun after the purpose the distance to it seems more than there is in reality.
  • The completely open purpose will seem located nearer, than the same purpose, but opened partially.

Reconnaissance of the purposes

1. Preliminary search: the rapid inspection of specific sections (without a constant mopping-up by the eyes of entire observation sector).
2. detailed search: systematic study. Use a method of the sequential inspection of one strip for another. Begin from the nearest section (most dangerous) from any side, sector - 180(, 50 it is meter into the depth, then consecutively the subsequent sections.
3. difference between THE INTEREST and THE ATTENTION:

  • INTEREST: a feeling of participation in the current or possible process.
  • ATTENTION: action in response to what - or stimulus.

Attention without the presence of interest cannot be supported in the long period. Stimulate your interest for maintaining the attention in the case of the continuance of the futile observation (you be inventive).

4. Four types are indicative the purpose:

  • olfactory (smell);
  • tactile (touch);
  • auditory (zvuk/slyshimost');
  • visual (form).

Note: one sign strengthens the perception of others it is indicative.

5. Basic tell-tale signs:

  • form;
  • shadow;
  • silhouette;
  • contrast;
  • color;
  • motion.

Note: enemy attempts to find the same signs in order to reveal you, which you search for, in order to reveal him.

Enumeration of control actions to - and during the shooting

After command engaged position necessary to verify the following:

  • Are there no obstacles before the stem;
  • Presence of the corresponding support. Supports must be located on the steady surface, rifle bags or noses - on the spot, nothing comes into contact with stem, etc;
  • Natural aiming point and the absence of the lateral inclination of weapon;
  • General state of weapon (fastening sight so forth.);
  • To be convinced of the fact that the shielding covers of sight are taken, before the sight there are no interferences and the focus of sight is established correctly. You will ascertain that the adjustment of sights and mechanisms of corrections correspond to distance and conditions of shooting;
  • You will ascertain that the firing position is convenient;
  • Equipment or belts must not be located between the butt and the arm;
  • Write down weather conditions into the sniper book;
  • Use any minute for checking the old records of analogous conditions and distances, prover'te the card of distances, etc.

Before and after each shot well prepared of pointers will automatically conduct the mental control of the following moments:

  • Correctness of the position of body;
  • Correctness of the retention of weapon for the convenience, compensating for return and averting of lateral inclination;
  • Control of respiration;
  • Removal of pupil;
  • Correct field of the sight of sight;
  • Control of descent;
  • Continuation of the mental and physical application of basic habits by the marker of shooting after each shot;
  • Expectation and planning the following shot;
  • As fast as possible write shot into the sniper book (especially importantly for the judicial trial).

Analysis of the group of the entries

Analyzing nature and close grouping of each group, pointers are determined the reasons for deviations and it is removed them. Usually errors are the results of the following factors:

  • Correctness of aiming;
  • Field of the sight of sight;
  • Focusing of eye on the purpose;
  • Respiration;
  • Removal of pupil;
  • The misadjustments of sight;
  • Unstable firing position;
  • Natural aiming point;
  • Expectation of shot;
  • Retention of weapon;
  • Incapacity to estimate distance and weather conditions;
  • Emotional state, concentration or abstractness.

Shot from the cold stem

During the trainings create the data base for the shot from the cold stem. Pay special attention to the first, after raschekhleniya, shot. Hot stem influences the point of the entry of bullet. You remember, in the real situation the shot from the cold stem is final shot. If situation during the call allows, each command must on the turn conduct checking cold stem on the nearest shooting-range for the dual checking of weapon.
Note: Many pointers cover bore with the average layer of lubricant during the storage. In this there is nothing poor, but do not forget to wipe stem dry before the accomplishment of mission. Oil in the stem has an effect on the first shot.

Selection of the position

In the majority of the cases the limitedness of time with the incident or its position (in particular under the conditions of the populated area) do not make possible for the sniper command to select the most suitable place for the position. However, you must use as much as possible factors into your benefit. Masking and methods of movement are opened in chapter 2. Are given below some considerations on the selection of position under the conditions of the populated area:

  • With taking a position in the building select it to the right or to the left of the window or the door aperture to avoid projection in them;
  • Occupy a position how deeper as possible inside the room in order not to be located on the light, but you remember that the further you are located from the opening for the delivery of fire, the less your observation sector;
  • When you open window, do not forget to fasten blind so that their motion would not give out your presence. Instead of the opening of window you can take out one glass-. If window is not opened, you can knock out it or move for another position. Many contemporary high-rise buildings have high-strength window glass, which you will not be able to break,;
  • Wet the section, which is directly to your position, by water, if you be situated in the dusty room. This is done so that with the shot enemy would not reveal your position and the risen dust did not shield survey with the shooting;
  • If necessary build firing position. Use tables and another furniture for constructing the steady platform;
  • You will be convinced of the fact that you are sheltered from the fire and from the observation;
  • Think over the ways of approach and withdrawal to the position. You must occupy unnoticeably and rapidly leave it during its detection;
  • Do not select for the position of the place, where the enemy can expect your appearance;
  • With the selection of position take into consideration the changing conditions in the daytime and at night to the case, if operation tightens itself. You remember that the place, which is relatively sheltered night, with daylight can not ensure reserved arrangement.

Selection of the route

Are given below the basic questions, decided in the course of the selection of route.

1. Masking in the course of motion and on the position.
2. route must ensure shelter from the fire and observations of enemy and be, as far as possible, shortest.

  • Avoid those places, where the enemy can await you (possible ways of approach);
  • Uplotnyayte the time (it must work on you, if it is possible);
  • In the case of detection select shelter in accordance with the weapon of enemy. For example, for the bullet of caliber 308 shelter must have a thickness: from the pine tree - 127 cm; from the sand - 25 cm; from the concrete - 7,5 cm.

3. Study and the selection of the route:

  • Arrangement of purpose;
  • Shelters from the fire and the observation;
  • The most advantageous positions for the command;
  • Obstacles on the path of motion (natural or artificial);
  • Known or probable the locations of enemy;
  • Methods of motion through different terrain sectors (obstacle, dangerous sections, the open sections so forth.);
  • Withdrawal routes (for the movement into another region or the withdrawal during the detection);
  • Note and you will memorize characteristic orientators near the route and on the route;
  • You remember about the animals, that can give out your presence (dogs, birds, domestic cattle);
  • Target area: you will determine the key control points (door, street, etc.).

Note: If you are discovered, enemy can be not in the state of news on you fire, but from this point on, he will know about your presence.

4. Characteristic of the populated areas:

  • Predominance of artificial local objects;
  • Presence of shelters from the fire and the observation (for both sides);
  • Limited observation sectors and delivery of fire;
  • Motion in essence along the streets (for both sides);
  • Overcoming obstacles is hindered in view of the limited ways of approach;
  • Presence of the concealed ways of approach and withdrawal through the underground communications (canalization, the metro, municipal networks so forth.);
  • Presence of citizen;
  • Advantages on the side of that defending;
  • Radio communication deteriorates.

5. Information sources:

  • Maps;
  • Plans of civil defense;
  • Fire parts;
  • Local military parts;
  • Engineers of municipal services.

Order of delivery of fire

This order or similar must become the part of the automatic actions of sniper - unique subconsious list.

  1. You will determine tsel'(podrobnosti and importance);
  2. Steady position;
  3. You will determine distance;
  4. You will estimate veter/pogodu;
  5. You will define basic hazardous zones;
  6. You will determine, will not be required delivery of fire on the moving or running purpose (in the case of the flight of criminals, their output for the attack on capturing team, motion in the windows or the door apertures so forth.) You will predetermine prevention for the possible situations.
  7. Open fire (being guided by the principles of the application of a weapon).

Assault of building under the cover of the sniper

The commander of subdivision can make the decision to use a shot of sniper as the signal for the beginning of assault upon command or to await his shot on the appeared purpose. This method is very effective, but it requires the thorough organization of interaction. Use it in the course of occupations.

Evacuation of injured colleague under the cover of the sniper

Snipers can adapt for the cover of the evacuation of injured colleague or during the suddenly emergent threatening situations (sudden encounter with the enemy, unexpected opening fire by enemy, etc.). These situations also must be mastered in the course of trainings.

Interaction between several sniper commands

For the effective protection of the region of operation in sector of 360В° it is necessary to use as the minimum two sniper commands. You do select the use of the coordinated fire or other actions, knowledge by each sniper of its responsibilities and positions, where other colleagues are located is immutable rule. Sometimes capturing team can prove to be on the position, with which is not examined the object. In such cases the command of snipers can direct their motion. You remember that you must report that the fact that you see from your position and at the specific angle, so, in order to those, who are located on other positions we could correctly understand you. It is very easy under the conditions of stress to give command to whom - or to move to the left, without suspecting, that for it this can be entirely another direction. Compulsorily train this question in the course of occupations.



Mark v. lonsdeyl

1. General considerations.

a. in order to become sniper, it is necessary to know and to know how to use in practice basic principles by the marker of the shootings, which include aiming, firing position, press of trigger, adjustment of sight, calculation of weather factors and bringing to weapon to the normal battle. The purpose of the study of these principles is the development of steady and correct rifle habits and their fastening at the level of instinctive actions. The small arms training of sniper is the continuation of base preparation pointer. She teaches sniper the methods of destruction of target from the first shot to different, in essence - large, distances.
b. of basis by the marker of the shootings, taught to sniper, vary from those, which teach to usual soldier to those, which are necessary for the accomplishment of sniper objectives. For the preparation at the level of expert the sniper must be equipped with the best weapon and the best ammunition. He is also armed with additional knowledge and skills in the region of the survival in the battlefield, which make possible for it to enter into the duel with the enemy and to leave from it by conqueror.
v. each sniper must periodically anew pass the course of bases as the marker of shooting independent of rifle period. Even experimental sniper from time to time experiences scarcity in the correct application of bases with the marker of shooting, what is the consequence of finalizing other habits and skills. Bases must be mastered by the marker of the shooting of sniper in the sequence, given in the following divisions.

2. Aiming.

Correct aiming is the first habit, manufactured in sniper. The importance of correct aiming cannot be overestimated. Not only because this is one of the basic habits, but also because it gives the methods, with the aid of which the sniper can check the correctness of manufacture for shooting and pressure of trigger. The process of aiming includes the following phases: the relationship between the eye and the sight mechanisms, the "full sight", aiming point, the process of respiration and aiming and exercise on the production of correct aiming.

a. the relationship between the eye and the sight mechanisms.

  1. In order to understand that it is necessary in the process of aiming, pointers it must know as to use its eye. Variety in the position of eye with respect to the aiming lath pours out into the variety of the means, received by eye. The corresponding arrangement of eye is called the "removal of pupil". The correct removal of pupil, allowing insignificant changes, composes approximately 7,5 cm. by the best method of observing the correct removal of pupil it appears the use of a cover plate to the butt (Vol. n. "cheek") or thumb of the shooting hand.
  2. For the more clear idea about the use of an eye in the process of aiming it is necessary to remember that the eye is capable instantly to be focused upon transfer from one distance to another. It cannot be focused simultaneously on two objects, located on different distances.
  3. For achievement of the undistorted image during the aiming the head pointer must assume the position, with which it looks directly, but not askance and not sullenly. If head is located in the position, which makes it necessary pointer to aim through the nose or from under the eyebrow, ocular muscles strain themselves and are caused the involuntary motions of the eyes, which decrease the authenticity of image. This not only influences the characteristics of sight, but at the same time exerts negative psychological influence on pointer. Eye better functions, when it is located in the natural position, i.e., when view is directed directly forward.
  4. Do not concentrate sight on the aiming point longer than several seconds. When eyes are focused on the single means during the specific time, it zapechatlevayetsya in the zone of perception. This effect can be illustrated based on the following example. During 20 - 30 seconds you look at the black point, drawn on the sheet of paper and then transfer view on the white wall or ceiling. You will see hardly the noticeable means of point on the wall, in this case the sharpness of image in the region of means will be lost. This effect is very important for pointer. The zapechatlennyy means dulls the sharpness of image in the zone of perception and it can be erroneously accepted as the true image of purpose.
  5. Many pointers, which have bushy eyebrows, experience inconveniences during the aiming, which leads to the pattern distortion of purpose. In such cases of eyebrow it should be podbrivat' or glued up by tape.

b. the "full sight".

  1. the "full sight" - this is the interrelation of fly and pillar with respect to the eye. This is the most important element of aiming, since errors with its fulfillment lead to a change in the position of the axis of the bore of weapon.
  2. With the use of the open sight "full sight" is implied such position of fly in the cut of aiming lath, with which it is located in the center of cut in the direction also on one line from the grivkoy aiming lath along the height.

v. aiming point.

  1. After pointers it is trained to the taking of the "full sight", it is necessary to take up the study of the selection of aiming point. This element is differed from the "full sight" only in terms of the fact that to it is added the point on the purpose, to which brings the fly.
  2. Aiming point, utilized by a sniper - center of purpose. This they must know all beginning pointers, since it is most frequently utilized and more intelligible, in contrast to others.

g. the process of respiration and aiming.

  1. The control of respiration is very important for the process of aiming. If pointers it dyshit during the aiming, the motions of its chest upward and downward lead to the motion of weapon in the vertical plane. the "full sight" is taken during the respiration, but for the completion of the process of aiming the pointers it must detain respiration. For correct holding of breath it is necessary to make an inhalation, then expiration and to detain respiration during the natural respiratory pause. If in this case "full sight" it is not located on the purpose, it is necessary to change the position of body.
  2. Respiratory cycle lasts 4 - 5 seconds. Inhalation breathed out they occupy approximately 2 seconds. Thus, between the cycles is a pause by the duration 2 - 3 seconds. It can be increased to 12 - 15 seconds without the special efforts or the discomfort. Specifically, during this increased pause sniper must fire a shot. Reasons in favor of this: respiratory muscles are weakened during the respiratory pause; Thus, pointers it avoids the stress of diaphragm.
  3. Pointers it must accept firing position and achieve normal respiration until "full sight" begins to approach the desired aiming point on the purpose. Many pointers then make deeper inhalation, expiration, pause and fire a shot during the pause. If in this case sight mechanisms did not occupy the desired position on the purpose, pointers renews respiration and process is repeated.
  4. Respiratory pause must not cause discomfort. If pause is involved, body begins to experience an oxygen deficiency and sends signal into the brain to the renewal of respiration. These signals cause the easy involuntary reductions of diaphragm and they influence capability pointer for the concentration of attention. Generally, maximally safe for the respiratory pause is period 8 - 10 seconds.
  5. As it was said above, eye plays very important role in the process of aiming. During expiration and displacement of fly upward, to the purpose, the focus must on the turn be moved from the fly to the purpose until pointers it determines, that the sight mechanisms occupied correct position on the purpose. After the correct picture of aiming is achieved, focus must be concentrated on the fly for the precision determination of the position of sight mechanisms relative to aiming point at the moment of shot and determining the versions of irregular aiming.
  6. Some inexperienced pointers cannot understand that the final focus must be concentrated on the fly; under the unsatisfactory lighting environment, when purpose is visible inexperienced of pointers vaguely, has a tendency toward the focusing of eye on the purpose. Shooting at the "empty" target (target, which does not have what - either outlines or the usual target, inverted by white side to pointer) can prove pointer the need for the concentration of sight on the fly.

d. of exercise on the production of correct aiming.

  1. Two practical exercises on the instruction in the aiming are given below:
    (a) benefit on the instruction in the aiming (see ris.y).
    (b) exercise on the taking of the full sight, its arrangement on the purpose and monotony of aiming (cm of ris.2).
  2. Last exercise is considered as the very useful and it was modified by experimental pointers by an increase in the distance to 600 it was meter, which adds realism and increases sighting errors. It is carried out as follows:
    (a) pointers are reduced to the commands on 4 people: 2 people remain on the firing line and 2 people diminish into the target area.
    (b) on the firing line one sniper comes out in the role of the one shooting. Rifle is rigidly fixed in the machine tool, firing position - lying, head it is supported by left hand. The full sight is located in the aiming point on the purpose. In this case the position of rifle is very important not to bring down.
    (c) the second sniper on the firing line plays the role of signalman. Using prearranged signals or radio station, it transfers commands pointer to the displacement of aiming disk into the necessary point.
    (g) of one pointers, which is been located in purpose, controls signals into the telescope. With obtaining of signal from the signalman it transfers him to the second pointer, who respectively moves disk.
    (d) the latter moves the disk with a diameter of 50 cm along the face side of purpose in accordance with the obtained command.
    (e) on the face side of purpose it is necessary to fasten the sheet of white paper. After obtaining of signal "note!" marker retains disk and through the opening in the disk the mark is produced with pencil. Then it signs the number of mark.
    (zh) to each pointer is recommended the producing of 2 series on y0"vystrelov". For the first group the initial position of disk varies for each "shot"; for the second the top of purpose is initial position. This method proves, that for the monotonous aiming it is necessary to always bring the full sight to the aiming point from below.
    (z) note must is produced on the tracing paper. Satisfactory close grouping must be not more than 7,62 cm in the diameter at the distance 600 m.



  3. Shooting at the "empty" target - this is the shooting at the target, which is inverted by reverse (white) side to pointer. This exercise is very useful for the demonstration of the importance of the taking of the full sight in the process of aiming and need for the focusing of sight on the fly. The majority of strelkov will reveal that the absence of aiming point makes it possible to increase an accuracy of shooting.

e. the use of the optical sight

The device of optical sight permits implementation of an aiming without the aid of the open sight. The optical axis, passing through centers of objective and cross lines of sight, is aiming line. Cross lines of sight plays the role of fly. Cross lines and image of purpose are located in the focal plane of the objective (plane, which penetrates the focus of objective perpendicularly to optical axis). The eye of sniper receives cross lines and image of purpose with the identical clearness. For the aiming with the aid of the optical sight the head of sniper must occupy position at the point of the exit pupil of eyepiece so that the line of the sight of eye would coincide with the sight axis. Then sniper moves cross lines into the aiming point on the purpose.

1) the removal of eye. During aiming of eyes it must be located at removal 7,5 - 9,5 cm from the exit pupil of eyepiece. This distance - the removal of eye - sufficiently large, but it must be maintained for providing of safety with the return and for obtaining the complete field of sight.

(a) the effect of shadow. During the aiming the sniper must be convinced in the absence of shadow in the field of the sight of sight; it must be completely clean. If the eye of sniper is located on the insufficient removal from the sight, in the field of sight appears the concentric shadow, which decreases the dimensions of the field of sight, worsens observation conditions into the sight and is made itself difficult aiming. If eye is located incorrectly with respect to the sight axis, on the edges of the field of sight appear the shadows in the form of demilune; they can be formed from any side, in the dependence on the position of the axis of sight relative to sight axis. With the presence of this shadow the bullets are slanted to the side, opposite to the side of its appearance.
(b) the adjustment of the position of head. If sniper observes shadows on the edges of the field of sight during the aiming, he must find such position of head, with which his eye will see the field of sight completely. Consequently, for the precise aiming sniper must completely concentrate his attention in the retention of eye on the sight axis and on the precise arrangement of cross lines in the aiming point.

2) the advantages of optical sight.

It ensures optical sight:

(a) the increased accuracy of aiming, which makes possible for sniper to conduct fire according to those removed, hardly to the distinguishable and disguised purposes, which are invisible for the naked eye.
(b) rapidity in the aiming as a result of the fact that the sniper sees cross lines and image of purpose with the identical clearness, in one focal plane.
(c) accuracy of fire under the conditions of the restricted visibility (on the sunset, in the twilights, into the fog, with the moonlight so forth.)
(g) the best conditions for observation, the more precision determination of distances and fire adjustment.

3) the lateral inclination of weapon. Is the deviation of the position of weapon into one of the sides relative to vertical axis. Fig. 3 of A shows the correct picture of aiming, on which optical sight and stem of rifle are located exactly in vertical plane. Fig. 3 of B shows the relationship between aiming line and line of departure. At the moment of the departure of bullet from the bore it is directed to the point A, but under the action of gravitational force the trajectory of its flight is reduced and bullet falls into the point Ay, i.e. into the desired point of entry. Fig. 3 in illustrates the lateral inclination of weapon; sight mechanisms are slightly inclined to the right. In this case aiming line also concludes at point Ay on the purpose, but line of departure now runs the point B instead of A. pul's point it is reduced also, as with the first shot, its reduction occurs from the point B and the point of entry is point By. Larger inclination will lead to the larger the deflection of bullet to the right - downward, as shown in the insert Fig. 3.

3. Firing position

a. sniper must select such position, which ensures large stability together with the possibility to observe of the purpose and shelter from the observation of enemy to it. Sniper must know how to conduct fire from any standard positions and positions with the use of a support, examined in this division. For destruction of target from the first shot he must have steady firing position. Manufacture for the shooting can be usovershenstvovana by using the belt. Despite the fact that the use of a belt with the shooting in combat is not recommended, selection must remain after the sniper, in the dependence on the situation. One should pay the same attention to training in the shooting with the use of a belt and in the shooting with the use of a support.

b. of firing position, given below, must be examined as the guide to action, but not as the only possible for each person. Each of the given positions is excellent "platform" for the weapon and must be used taking into account the special features of the structure of the body of each human.

v. three component elements of correct firing position are the hardness of bone apparatus, the weakening of muscles and natural aiming point.

  1. Hardness of bone apparatus. Firing positions are developed for the use as the "machine tool" for the rifle. The hardness of this "machine tool" has very important significance. If house is built on the weak foundation, it not will stand directly. The same is correct for the sniper, who uses weak "machine tool" (position) for the rifle. It will not be able to maintain the repetitive return of weapon with the rapid rate of fire. Consequently, pointers it will not be able used the habits of the delivery of fire as should be.
  2. Sniper must know how the weakening of muscles to weaken muscles, how this is possible, using different firing positions. The excessive muscle tension causes the vibration, which is transferred to weapon. However, in any position is necessary the specific, controlled muscle tension for example, with the rapid rate of delivery of fire it is necessary to exert the pressure by thumb of the shooting hand on the small of the butt. Only as a result of practice and using the natural aiming point sniper will learn to the weakening of muscles.
  3. Natural aiming point. Since rifle becomes the continuation of body, it is necessary to accept such position, with which the rifle will be naturally induced into the purpose. When sniper assumes firing position, he must shut eyes, be weakened and then open eyes. After the levelling off of fly in the cut of aiming lath it will occupy the position of natural aiming point. By displacing the soles of feet or body, and also, using control of respiration, sniper can move natural aiming point into the desired point on the purpose.

g. the trimming of belt serves two purposes. It makes it possible to maximally stabilize the position of weapon with the correct use and it helps to reduce some factors of return.

d. the correct contact of cheek and large finger of the shooting hand or cheek and butt of weapon play important role in the process of aiming.

  1. As it was indicated above, the distance between the eye and the sight mechanisms must be constant. This constancy is attained with the aid of the contact of cheek. Correct contact implies the contact of cheek pointer with the butt of weapon in one and the same place with each shot, which contributes to the monotony of aiming and to the correct position of eye at the appropriate distance from the sight.
  2. For guaranteeing the best contact during the aiming along the open sight it is necessary to force the fleshy part of the cheek against the upper part of the right thumb, which covers small of the butt.
  3. During the aiming along the optical sight it is necessary to force cheek against butt in such a way as to ensure the correct removal of eye from the sight. The use of a thumb in this case is impossible. Very crucial point the strong pressing of cheek is, so that the head and the weapon with the return would work as single whole how is achieved the rapid restoration of focusing after shot.
  4. After the determination of the correct position of cheek it must start with each shot. The cheek can be ill in the initial period. For averting this it is necessary to strongly cheek against butt.

Firing positions lying:

  1. Standard firing position lying. This position is very steady and lung for the adoption. It ensures low silhouette and satisfies the requirements of shelter from fire and observation of enemy. For adopting the firing position lying the sniper at first drives on belt, stands facing the purpose. Left hand is located on the shank near antabki, right - on the bed, in the region of the heel of butt. Then it arranges feet to the width convenient for it, it transfers the weight of body slightly back and it descends to the elbows. The nose of butt descends to the earth in front, on the line between the right elbow pointer and the purpose, pointers it descends to the left side, placing the left elbow in front, on the same line (weapon descends with great care in order not to bring down sight). By the right hand of pointers rests butt plate into the right arm. Then right hand covers small of the butt and right elbow it descends to the earth in such a way that the arms would be located by approximately one level. Then sniper ensures the correct contact of cheek with the butt and weakens belt tension. For the displacement of natural aiming point to the purpose the sniper uses a left elbow as pivot. Position is well balanced, if with the respiration of sniper cross lines of sight is moved in the vertical plane without the inclination.
  2. Firing position lying from the support. For adopting this position the sniper first selects the firing position, which ensures the best survey, the sector of delivery of fire and shelter from the observation. Then it assumes convenient firing position lying and prepares platform (support) for the rifle. Support must be as below as possible. Rifle must stably lie on the support by the aspect of the lie between the front antabkoy and the store. It is necessary to focus attention on that so that moving parts and stem would not concern support, since this can lead to the oversight. Then sniper forms "supports" from his elbows. In this case he covers small of the butt by right hand, thumb - from above the neck, indicating - on the trigger; then rests butt plate into the right arm. Left hand also is placed to the neck; thumb covers neck from below, and the remained fingers - on top. The fingers of left hand participate in the guarantee of correct contact of cheek with the butt and the necessary removal of eye. Then sniper weakens and is used left hand (if necessary) for changing the adjustment of sights. For the position control for the shooting at the vertical line it simply moves elbows, and - it displaces body to the right or to the left along horizontal. Store changes by any hand; single recharging is produced by right hand, in this case the leftist supports small of the butt. It is very important with the shooting from this position so that the sector of delivery of fire would be clean. If bullet catches branch, leaf or grass, shot can prove to be unsuccessful.
  3. Testing the correctness of standard firing position includes the following elements:
    a) lateral inclination is absent.
    b) left hand is located in the region of front antabki.
    c) shank lies at the fork, formed by the large and indicating fingers of left hand, it is supported by the palm (but not by fingers).
    d) left elbow is located directly under the receiver (how this is allowed to the special feature of the structure of body pointer).
    e) belt is located highly on the left hand.
    f) butt plate is located in the "pocket" of arm, it is close to the neck.
    g) arms are located by approximately one level (for averting the lateral inclination).
    h) body find on one line with the rifle (for the energy absorption of return).
    i) cheek is tightly forced against butt at the point, which ensures the correct removal of eye.

Firing positions sitting:

  1. Standard position. There are three versions of standard firing position sitting: with the arranged feet, with the lattice-type feet and with the lattice-type ankles. These positions are equally good, depending on the special features of body pointer. It must select one of them, steadiest and convenient.
    a) firing position with the lattice-type feet. The belt, urged for the shooting lying, decreases on 5 - 7 cm. then the sniper it is turned by half turn to the right for this position, he crosses left foot from the right and sits down itself. Being inclined forward, sniper transfers left hand for the left elbow and shifts it downward on the left shin. By right hand sniper rests butt into the arm, covers small of the butt and is placed the elbow of right hand on the internal part of the right elbow.
    b) firing position with the arranged feet. For adopting this position the sniper acts also as for adopting the position with the lattice-type feet, with exception of the fact that after squatting he leaves feet on the spot, without crossing them are placed elbows on the internal part of the elbows. It draws out feet to the convenient position and arranges soles approximately to 90 cm. after unrolling the soles of feet slightly inward, sniper does not give to elbows to be separated and preserves pressure on the hands. The adoption of position completes by the transfer of gravity of body forward, by weakening and correct pressing of cheek against the butt. Many snipers use this position, since it starts very rapidly.
    c) firing position with the lattice-type ankles. For adopting this position the sniper crosses the ankles, he sits down herself and soles are shifted slightly forward. Being inclined forward, it locates the hands between elbows. As in other positions, required is the regulation of natural aiming point the motion of body, but not with the muscle tension. In the position sitting this it is achieved by the movement of sole, both of soles or buttocks to the combination of sight mechanisms with the purpose.
  2. Firing position sitting from the support, this position assumes that the sniper is situated in the region or on the position, where he can or must assume the modified position sitting for guaranteeing the observation sector and delivery of fire. For adopting the position it is necessary to prepare platform for the rifle or to use natural cover as the support. In this case it is necessary to be convinced of the fact that stem or moving parts do not concern support. Then pointers it assumes convenient position sitting, covers small of the butt by right hand and rests butt plate into the arm. Left hand is located also on the neck for guaranteeing the correct contact of cheek and butt and necessary removal of eye. Then pointers it places elbows on the insides of elbows as with the standard position with the skreshchenymi feet. The adjustment of position is produced by a change in the position of elbows or body. Since this position is tiresome, it is necessary to alternate the performance of the responsibilities of the sniper between the members of command.
  3. Testing the correctness of standard firing position sitting includes the following elements:
    a) the lateral inclination of weapon is absent.
    b) left hand is located on the shank in the region of front antabki.
    c) shank lies at the fork, formed by the large and indicating fingers of left hand, it is supported by palm; fingers in this case are weakened.
    d) left elbow is located approximately under the receiver.
    e) right arm is fixed before the right elbow.
    f) belt is located highly on the left hand.
    g) arms are located approximately on the same level for averting the lateral inclination.
    h) butt plate is located in the humeral pocket, it is close to the neck.
    i) cheek is tightly forced against butt at the point, which ensures the correct removal of eye.
    j) between the indicating finger also of lies is a space.
    l) the distance between the elbows is less than the distance between the heels (with the position with the arranged feet).
    m) the indicating finger of right hand achieves a pressure of trigger strictly back.

Kneeling firing positions.

Like firing position sitting, position from the elbow has three versions: low, average and high. Sniper uses that most being suitable for it.

1) standard kneeling firing position.

A) any position from the elbow requires flat locality. For adopting the standard position the sniper descends to the right elbow in such a way that the right shin would be parallel to purpose. Right stupnya can assume one of three positions, described below. Stupnya is turned under for the low position and sniper sits down himself on the internal part of the ankle. For the mid-position the ankle remains straight line, stupnya concerns the earth by the lift of foot. Sniper sits on the heel. With the high position the ankle also straight line, but stupnya rests to the earth by the nose of boots. Right buttock is located on the right heel. With the use of the positions indicated the balance can be disrupted, if body is too moved back.
b) left foot is located in the vertical position, stupnya costs on the earth. For the larger stability the fingers of sole must be directed approximately to the side of purpose. For averting the yawing motion the fingers of left sole must be slightly turned inward by rotating the sole around the heel. After the adoption of position left foot can be advanced forward or pulled back for lowering or lifting the stem of weapon.
c) the shin of right foot must occupy such position, which would ensure stability during the guidance of weapon into target. At the sight from the front the shin must occupy approximately vertical position. With this position left foot plays the role of support for the support of the weight of body.
d) right elbow usually is located on the level of arm for the formation of the "pocket", into which rests the butt plate. Elbow can be located and it is below, if butt plate does not slide down from the arm. Left hand supports rifle; therefore it is very important to know the arrangement of its different parts with respect to other parts of the body. On the arm there is a flat part, located on the rear surface, it is higher than the elbow bend. With this partly the hand is placed on the same flat part of the elbow of left leg. In this case the elbow of left hand is located in front of the elbow and gravity of body is transferred forward, to the left foot. Left foot must be located under the rifle for achievement of maximum stability. Between the elbow bend and the belt must be the opening, which testifies about the support of forearm by arm with the aid of the belt. Belt supports the bone and, in turn, the bone support rifle. Approximately 60 % the weights of body are postponed by left foot, decreasing load on right stupnyu and foot, which contributes to the slack position.

2) kneeling firing position with the support.

A) this position adapts in cases when it is necessary to rapidly accept firing position, and time to the adoption of position by lying insufficiently. It frequently adapts in the flat locality or with the presence of the parapet before the position, when the application of other positions is impossible.
b) position is received as the same order as standard, with exception of the fact that the support of rifle is achieved due to the tree or another fixed object, which is used for the support, the shelter from the fire or the observation. Support is ensured by the contact of shin and elbow of left leg, forearm, arm or rifle, which lies on the palm, with the support. As in other cases, it is necessary to follow the fact so that moving parts and stem would not come into contact with support. Otherwise this can lead to the unsuccessful shot.

3) testing the correctness of the adoption of standard kneeling firing position includes the following elements:

A) lateral inclination is absent.
b) left hand is located on the shank in the region of front antabki.
c) shank lies at the fork, formed by the large and indicating fingers of left hand, it is supported by palm; fingers in this case are weakened.
d) left foot at the sight is from the front located approximately in the vertical position.
e) the elbow of right hand is located approximately at the height of arm.
f) the weight of body is postponed by left foot.
g) cheek is tightly forced against butt at the point, which ensures the correct removal of eye.
h) between the indicating finger of right hand and the shank is clearance.
i) indicating finger presses trigger in the direction strictly back.
j) belt is located highly on the left hand.
l) between the belt and the elbow bend of left hand there is an opening.



General Tid-bits of Sniper Lore

The term sniper was developed during the 19th century during the British occupation of India.

Ghillie suits were developed by Scottish game wardens during the 19th century to catch poachers.

Hiram Berdan (North) and Robert E. Lee (South) were the first in history to set up units of designated marksman or sharpshooters, this happened during the American Civil War.

The Germans, during WWI, were the first to use specially trained snipers.

The Russians were the first to employ snipers in two-man teams.

Hisketh Pritchard started the first Allied sniper school. (During WWI in the UK, trained both British and American snipers.)

Kipling devised the KIMs game for use by Canadian Snipers.

The best estimate as to the average amount of rounds expended per kill in the Vietnam Conflict (For U.S. Army Soldiers) is 200,000. The average rounds expended per kill by U.S. Army
snipers in Vietnam was 1.3

The first U.S. Army sniper school was set up in 1954-55 during the Korean war (though after the cease fire) by the AMU (Army Marksmanship Unit)

The current U.S. Army sniper school was established in 1987

There is a sign at the USMC sniper school that reads "The average rounds expended per kill with the M16 in Vietnam was 50,000. Snipers averaged 1.3 rounds. The cost difference was $2300 v. 27 cents."

In World War II, German snipers received the following rewards:
50 Kills - Wrist Watch
100 Kills - Hunting Rifle
150 Kills - A personal hunting trip with Heinrich Himmler

The U.S. Army determined that the average soldier will only hit a man size target 10% of the time at 300 meters with the M16A2 rifle. The U.S. Army standard for snipers is to hit 90% first round hits at 600 meters with the M24 SWS. That is at least an 1800% improvement over the average soldier.

The most kills achieved my a female sniper was by Lyudmila M. Pavlichenko, a Russian sniper in WWII. She is credited with killing 309 enemy soldiers.





Sniper Interviews


 an interview with a female Soviet sniper; Klavdia Kalugina.

A.D. What was the total number of Germans you killed?

I don't remember, Germans killed in battle weren't counted, only in the defense.

A.D. How did you count the kills?

The commander in whose trench we were would write a note. And we would return with it.

A.D. Then it's not clear, what if you only wounded him?

Yes, it could be, but we counted as killed.

A.D. So if he fell, that's a kill?

Yes. How would you check?

A.D. What was the usual distance you fired from?

At the school or at the front?

A.D. At the front.

1200 meters, and 200 meters. Our lines were close. Once Germans attacked our trench and took some girls prisoner, and killed them there. They killed Klava Monakhova. Only one soldier survived, there was an abandoned dug-out, simply a hole in the soil covered with a ground-sheet with snow on top, he hid there. Germans held out for a day, so he spent the day there.

A.D. What was the standard distance from which you fired? Or an optimal one?

Well, what's there to say? The rifle could shoot two kilometers in a straight line. But you could observe up to 800 meters. At the school we fired at 200, and 300. There was night target practice. Different kinds of shooting.


Originally Posted by Cpt. Hans Widhofner - 1967

The following article first appeared in the official Austrian military publication called TRUPPENDIENST (Troop Service) in the year 1967 and was written by an Austrian Army Officer, Captain Hans Widhofner. Among persons questioned were the two most proficient German snipers of the war with the comments of another good sniper added to obtain a well-rounded picture concerning the use of snipers in the German army.

Questions asked of the Snipers

Widhofner questioned three seasoned snipers individually. They are designated in the order A, B and C. All three were members of the Third Mountain Division of the former German Army. With respect to their person please note the following:

A. Matthäus Hetzenauer of Tyrol fought at the Eastern Front from 1943 to the end of the war, and with 345 certified hits is the most successful German sniper.

B. Sepp Allerberg of Salzburg fought at the Eastern Front from December 1942, to the end of the war, and with 257 certified hits is the second-best German sniper.

C. Helmut Wirnsberger of Styria fought at the Eastern Front from September 1942, to the end of the war and scored 64 certified hits (after being wounded he served for some time as instructor on a sniper training course).

1. Weapons used?

A. K98 with six-power telescopic sights. G43 with four-power telescopic sights.

B. Captured Russian sniper rifle with telescopic sight; I cannot remember power. K98 with six-power telescopic sights.

C. K98 with 1.5-power sights. K98 with four-power telescopic sights. G43 with four-power telescopic sights.

2. Telescopic sights used?

A. Four-power telescopic sight was sufficient up to a range of approximately 400 meters, Six-power telescopic sight was good up to 1,000 meters.

B. Used for two years a captured Russian rifle with telescopic sight; yielded good results, Six-power telescopic sight mounted on K98 was good.

C. 1.5-power telescopic sight was not sufficient; four-power telescopic sight was sufficient and proved good.

3. What is your opinion on increasing the magnification of your telescopic sights?

A. & B. Six-power was sufficient. There was no need for stronger scope. No experience with greater magnification.

C. Four-power is sufficient in both cases.

4. At what range could you hit the following targets without fail?

A. Head up to 400 meters. Breast up to 600 meters. Standing Man up to 700-800 meters.

B. Head up to 400 meters. Breast up to 400 meters. Standing up to 600 meters.

C. Head up to 400 meters. Breast up to 400 meters. Standing Man up to 600 meters.

5. Do the ranges indicated by you apply only to you, i.e. the best snipers, or also to the majority of snipers?

A. & B. Only to the best snipers.

C. To me personally as well as to the majority of snipers. A few outstanding snipers could hit also at longer ranges.

B added: Absolutely positive hitting is possible only up to about 600 meters.

6. What was the range of the furthest target you ever fired at, and what kind of target, size?

A. About 1,000 meters. Standing soldier. Positive hitting not possible, but necessary under the circumstances in order to show enemy that he is not safe even at that distance! Or superior wanted to satisfy himself about capability.

B. 400 to 700 meters.

C. About 600 meters, rarely more. I usually waited until target approached further for better chance of hitting. Also confirmation of successful hit was easier. Used G43 only to about 500 meters because of poor ballistics.

7. How many second shots / Additional shots were necessary per ten hits?

A. Almost never.

B. One to two. Second shot is very dangerous when enemy snipers are in the area.

C. One to two at the most.

8. If you had a choice, what weapon would you use and why?

A. K98. Of all weapons available at that time it had the highest accuracy for permanent use, besides it did not jam easily. G43 was only suitable to about 400 meters. It also had inferior precision.

B. K98 was best. The G43 was to heavy.

C. The G43 would be good if it did not jam easily and its capacity was as good as K98.

9. Today if you had the choice between the K98 and a semi-automatic rifle that does not easily jam and has the same capacity as the K98, which weapon would you take and why?

A. Snipers do not need a semi-automatic weapon if they are correctly used as snipers.

B. Semi-automatic loader, if its weight does not increase.

C. Semi-automatic loader. Faster firing possible when attacked by the enemy.

10. Were you incorporated into a troop unit?

All three belonged to the sniper group of the battalion. C was the commander of this group. They numbered up to 22 men; six of them usually stayed with battalion, the rest were assigned to the companies. Observations and use of ammunition as well as successful hits had to be reported daily to the battalion staff. In the beginning, the snipers were called up cut of the battalion, as the war continued and the number of highly-skilled snipers decreased, they were often assigned and given their orders by the division. In addition, a few marksmen in each company were equipped with telescopic sights. These men did not have special training but were able to hit accurately up to about 400 meters and carried out a great deal of the work to be done by "actual snipers". These specially equipped riflemen served in the company as regular soldiers. This is why they could not achieve such high scores as the "snipers".

11. Strategy and Targets?

a. Attack:

A, B, C, Always two snipers at a time; one shoots, the other spots. Usual general order:- Elimination of observers, of the enemy's heavy weapons and of commanders, or special order, when all important or worthwhile targets were eliminated; for example! Anti-tank gun positions, machine gun positions. Etc. Snipers followed closely the attacking units and whenever necessary. Eliminated enemies who operated. Heavy weapons and those who were dangerous to our advance.

A added: In a few cases, I had to penetrate the enemies main line of resistance at night before our own attack. When our own artillery had opened fire. I had to shoot at enemy commanders and gunners because our own forces would have been too weak in number and ammunition without this support.

b. Attack during night:

A, B, C, As far as we can remember, no major attacks during night were conducted, snipers were not used at night; they were too valuable.

c. Winter attacks:

A. Clothed in winter camouflage I followed behind the front units. When the attack slowed down had to help by engaging machine gunners and Anti tank guns etc.

B, C, Good camouflage and protection against cold was necessary. No extensive ambushing possible.

d. Defence:

A, B, C, Usually on my own within company detachment; order fire at any target or only worthwhile targets. Great success during enemy attacks since commanders can often be recognized and shot at long range due to their special clothing and gear such as belts crossed on chest, white camouflage in winter, etc. As a consequence, enemy's attack was prevented in most cases. Shot the respective leaders of enemy’s attack eight times during one attack. As soon as enemy snipers appeared we fought them until they were eliminated; we also suffered great losses. As a rule, the sniper watched for worthwhile targets at the break of dawn and remained in position until dusk with few interruptions. We were often in position in front of our own lines in order to fight the enemy more successfully. When enemy knew our position, we were forced to remain without provisions or reinforcements at such advanced position. During alarm or enemy attack, a good sniper did not shoot at just any target, but only at the most important ones such as commanders, gunners, etc.

e. Defence during night:

A, B, C, Snipers not used during night; not even assigned to guard duty or other duties. If necessary he had to take position in front of own lines in order to fight the enemy more effectively during the day.

f. Did you score successful hits by moonlight?

A. I was often called to action when there was sufficient moonlight since reasonably accurate hitting is possible with a six-power telescopic sight, but not with point and rear sight.

B. C. No.

g. Delaying action:

A, C, In most cases four to six snipers were ordered to rear guard and eliminate any enemy appearing; very good results. Use machine guns for rear guard only in emergencies since snipers delayed enemy's advance by one or two hits without easily revealing his own position.

B. No actual use of snipers, actual sniping not possible in mobile warfare since anybody shoots at appearing enemy.

12. In what warfare could the sniper be most successful?

A. The best success for snipers did not reside in the number of hits, but in the damage caused the enemy by shooting commanders or other important men. As to the merit of individual hits, the snipers best results could be obtained in defence since the target could be best recognized with respect to merit by careful observation. Also with respect the numbers, best results could be obtained in defence since the enemy attacked several times during a the day.

B. Defence. Other hits were not certified.

C. Best results during extended positional warfare and during enemy attacks; good results also during delaying action.

13. Percentage of successful hits at various ranges?

Up to 400 meters A. 65 percent C. 80 percent

Up to 600 meters A. 30 percent C. 20 percent

Additional information: A. This is why about 65 percent of my successful hits were made below 400 meters.

B. Do not remember. Mass of hits were below the range of 600 meters.

C. Shot mainly within range of 400 meters due to great possibility of successful hit. Beyond this limit hits could not be confirmed without difficulty.

14. Do these percentages and ranges apply to you personally or are they valid for the majority of snipers?

A. This information is applicable to the majority of snipers as well as to the beat snipers, for: the majority of snipers could hit with absolute certainty only within a range of 400 meters due to their limited skills, the best snipers could hit with reasonable certainty at longer ranges; they in most cases, however, waited until enemy was closer or approaching the enemy in order to better choose the target with respect to its merit.

B. Information is applicable to all snipers known to me in person.

C. Information is applicable to myself as well as to the majority of snipers.

15. On the average, how many shots were fired from one position?

a. Attack:

A, B, C. As many as necessary.

b. Defence from secure position:

A, B, C, One to three at most.

c. Enemy attack:

A, B, C, Depending on worthwhile targets.

d. Combat against enemy snipers:

A, B, C, One to two at most.

e. Delaying action:

A, B, C, One to two was sufficient since sniper was not alone.

B added: During own attack as well as enemy's attack, hits were not confirmed.

16. What else is especially important in addition to excellent marksmanship?

A: Besides the generally known quality of a sniper it is especially important to be able to out sit the enemy. The better "Tactician at detail" wins in combat against enemy snipes. The exemption from commitment to any other duties contributes essentially to the achievement of high scores.

B. Calmness, good judgement courage.

C. Patience and Perseverance, excellent sense of observation.

17. From what group of persons were snipers selected?

A. Only people born for individual fighting such as hunters, even poachers, forest rangers, etc without taking into consideration their time of service.

B. Do not remember. I had scored 27 successful hits with Russian sniper rifle before I was ordered to participate in sniper training course.

C. Only soldiers with experience at the front who were excellent riflemen; usually after second year of service; had to comply with various shooting requirements to be accepted in the sniper training courses.

18. In what sniper training courses did you participate?

A, B, C: Sniper courses at the training area Seetaleralpe.

C. I was later assigned to the same course as an instructor.

19. Was it advisable to equip the sniper with a double telescope? What magnification did the double telescope have?

A. 6 x 30 enlargement was insufficient for longer distances. Later I had a 10 x 50 telescope which was satisfactory.

B. Double telescope was equally important as rifle. No further information.

C. Every sniper was equipped with a double telescope. This was useful and necessary. An enlargement of 6 x 30 was sufficient up to a range of about 500 meters.

20. Would you prefer a periscope which allows observation under full cover?

A. Was very useful as supplement (Russian trench telescope).

B. No.

C. Was used when captured.

21. Were scissor stereo telescopes (positional warfare) used?

A, C. Yes, when available. Was used mutually by sniper and artillery observer.

B. No.

22. What type of camouflage was used?

A,B,C. I have never used a fake tree stump, but I have used camouflage clothing. Camouflage of my face and hands and camouflage of my weapon in winter. (White cover, white wrapping, white paint)

B added: For two years I used an umbrella which was painted to match the terrain. In the beginning I always camouflaged face and hands well. Later on, less often.

23. Did you use technical means to mislead the enemy?

A. Yes, stuffed dummies, etc.

B. Yes; for example, dummy position with installed carbines which could be fired by means of a wirepull.

C. No.

24. Did you use protective shields in positional warfare?

A, B, C. No.

25. What is your opinion on the use of tracer ammunition?

A, B, C. If possible, they should not be used at all in combat since they have easily revealed the position of the sniper. Tracer ammunition was mainly used for practice shooting as well as ranging at various distances. For this purpose every sniper carried with him a few tracer cartridges.

26. Did you use observation ammunition, i.e. cartridges that fired projectiles, which detonate upon impact?

A, B, C. Yes; upon impact a small flame as well as a small puff of smoke could be seen which allowed good observation of impact. By this method we could force the enemy to leave wooden houses, etc by setting tire to them.

Observation cartridges were used up to a range of about 600 meters; their dispersion was somewhat larger than that of heavy pointed cartridges (heavy pointed bullet).

27. How did you overcome side wind?

A. By my own judgement and experience. When necessary, I used tracer ammunition to determine wind drift. I was well prepared for side wind by my training at Seetaleralpe where we practised often in strong winds.

B. By own judgement. We did not shoot when side wind was too heavy.

C. No explanation since snipers do not shoot with strong winds.

28. Can you recall the rules pertaining to your behaviour when shooting at moving targets?

A, B, C: No; importance is own judgement and experience as well as fast aiming and fast firing.

29. Do you have any experience with armour piercing rifles?

A. Yes, several times I have fought against a "machine-gunner with a protective shield". I could hit small targets only up to 300 meters since dispersion was considerably larger than with K98. Besides, it was very heavy and clumsy and was not suitable as a sniper weapon. I did not use it against un-armoured targets.

B, C. No.

30. What was the method by which your hits were certified?

A, B, C, By observation and confirmation by an officer, non-commissioned officer or two soldiers. This is why the number of certified hits is smaller than the actual score

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