|Russian Snipers of World War Two|
Stalin’s Sharpshooter’s Tool (reprinted from the Authors Article on Suite 101.com)
The Soviet Russian Sniper rifle model M1891/30 Victor of Stalingrad, Warsaw, and the Berlin Wall
The Mosin-Nagant was adopted in 1891 by imperial Russia. The action of the rifle was developed by Colonel Serge Mosin of the Imperial Russian Army and the magazine by the Emile Nagant of Belgium. It was manufactured chronologically in France, Russia, the United State, Finland, China, and North Korea where it is still in production. The rifle, by nature of its 30 inch barrel, was the longest carried on the European battlefield of the First World War. It stood as tall as the men who carried it and was tipped with a 23 inch steel spike bayonet (which most modern armies of the time took to be an inefficient design). The rear sights were graduated in Arshins, an old Tsarist imperial measure of roughly 0.75 meters that was phased out in the twentieth century. Mosin-Nagant rifles are characterized by their massive action whose simplicity of design and operation almost completely soldier-proofed the weapon. It was an excellent design and would serve the Russian peasant soldiers of world war one and the subsequent Russian civil war well. It would continue on in the service of the winner of that war, the Red Army, for decades to come.
With the modernization of the Soviet Red Army in the 1930's the old reliable M1891 Mosin design was modified and designated the 1891/30. This redesign shortened the barrel to a more manageable length and changed the sights to a much better design graduated in meters. With the concept of having dedicated snipers assigned down to the platoon level, the Soviet Army needed a supply of sniper rifles. The 1891/30 was further redesigned to produce this creature. During the test firing steps of the manufacturing process used in making the standard 1891/30, rifles that shot particularly well were set aside for further conversion into the Soviet Army’s first dedicated sniper rifle. The rifle was expected to shoot 10 shots into 3.5 cm (1.38") at 100m, 7.5 cm (2.96") at 200m, 18 cm (7.09") at 400m, and 35cm (13.79") at 600m. A special machining and tapping process permitted the installation of an ingenious scope mount that is rock solid and preserves the use of the iron sights. The bolt handle was lengthened and bent nearly strait down to prevent it from hitting the attached scope. Two different scopes (the PU, and the PE/PEM) were used by these rifles, with the PU being the most prevalent.
Both the PU and PE scopes were issued from the 1930's through world war and remained in use postwar. The front and rear iron sights of this rifle are not removed when the telescope is attatched and these sights may still be used with the PU scope at ranges up to 2000 meters (2200 yards). The PU scope is 3.5 power fixed, with a 4 degree field of view at 30 feet, a 2.8 inch eye relief, is 6.59 inches long and adds 0.59 pounds to the weight of the rifle. A thumbscrew for lateral corrections (windage, drift and lead) is located on the left side of the scope. It has a thumbscrew on the top of the scope for setting angles of elevation. The elevation thumbscrew has 13 graduations, each one for 100 meters, allowing the PU scope to be dialed in anywhere from 100 to 1300 meters (110-1420 yards) for accuracy. The PE scope was much the same as above, being constructed with a tube that was some four inches longer, having a diopter adjustment added, and a slightly higher magnification (4 power rather than the 3.5 of the PU). Some 54,160 of the PE design were made 1932-1938, with the PU design numbering some 220,034 being produced 1942-1958. The original design of both scopes was by the German firm of Zeiss although actual production was by no less than 12 different Soviet firms. They both used a three bar ‘German’ reticle instead of the duplex reticle most modern scopes have.
The Russian M1891/30 Sniper rifle was issued down to the platoon level. The top twenty ranked soviet snipers (by number of confirmed 'kills") of the Second World War have 7400 confirmed kills. The weapon was a favorite of these 'sniper aces' of the Soviets with Noble Sniper Ivan Nikolayevich Kulbertinov of the (23rd separate ski brigade -499 kills) Fyodor Matveyevich Ohlopkov (of the 1243rd rifle regiments-424 kills) and Vasiliy Grigorievich Zaytsev (1047th rifle regiment-248 kills) almost always being shown pictured with either PU or PE equipped M1891/30's. The recent Hollywood hit 'Enemy at the Gates’ portrayed Zaytsev during the Battle of Stalingrad. The Soviet army arguably had the most snipers in history with more than a hundred thousand carried on their roles, including over a thousand female snipers who were credited with a total of 12000+ confirmed kills during the war. The highest ranking female sniper (in history of any army) was Ludmila Mihaylovna Pavlichenko (of the 54th rifle regiment) with 309 kills while mainly using a Mosin 91/30 sniper. It was used by the Communist Chinese Forces in the Korean conflict with Sniper Zhang Tao fang allegedly scoring 214 hits on UN troops in 32 days in 1952.
A number of Mosin rifles were captured in enemy hands in Vietnam and the guns are still seen in conflict in the middle east and Africa.
Being put into production in 1932 it was the standard issue sniper rifle of the Soviet Army and its allies until the introduction of the SVD Druganov in 1963.. The Druganov was not fully adopted by all units until as late at the 1980's with scoped M1891's still being carried in arsenals and war reserve stocks until just recently being liquidated. All of the recent imports are of the Soviet manufacture guns. These guns were
re-arsenaled than packed away for long-term storage should the situation arise that they be needed again. No doubt many of these old veterans are still held in armories of former Soviet bloc countries. These weapons are available for collectors in the United States. I recently purchased a M1891/30 Sniper with a faithfully reproduced PU scope from Interordanance. To read an extended review of this weapon, clickhere
Soviet Small Arms and Ammunition (Both Russian and
English versions)-D.N. Bolotin
Sniper Rifles of Two World Wars
William H Tantum IV
Lepskiy , Nikitin
Pavlichenko (top) , Zaitsev (bottom) , Kovshova (right)
Zaitsev (above in white parka and alone at right)
Ohlopkov and Kvachantiradze
|Top WW2 Snipers (Well, mostly WW2 anyway)|
|542||FINN||Lt Simo Hayha, Finnish Army Winter War||705 unconfirmed, All during Winter War- With Unscoped Rifle!|
|494 (also listed as 497)||Nikolay Yakovlevich Ilyin (50th Guards rifle regiment)|
|~500||Ivan Mihailovich Sidorenko (1122nd rifle regiment)|
|489||Ivan Nikolayevich Kulbertinov (23rd separate ski brigade ; 7th Guards airborne regiment)|
|456 [inc. 14 snipers]||Vladimir N. Pchelintsev|
|437||Mihail Ivanovich Budenkov (59th Guards rifle regiment)||until September 1944; ~100 - by machinegun|
|429||Fyodor Matveyevich Ohlopkov (1243rd and 234th rifle regiments)||not including machinegun score|
|425||Fyodor Trofimovich Dyachenko (187th rifle regiment)|
|422 [inc. 70 snipers]||Vasiliy Ivanovich Golosov (81st Guards rifle regiment)||until July 1943|
|422||Stepan Vasilievich Petrenko (59th Guards rifle regiment)||the data of September 1944|
|*400~||SS Major (Sturmbannfuhrer) Erwin Konig||May have actually been invented by Soviet Propaganda machine to give Vasily Zaitsev a protagonist to fight at Stalingrad. Also referred to as Colonel Heinz Thorvald in some Soviet texts (namely Zaitsev's postwar book). If he existed would not only be the highest scoring SS ace (few exist) but the highest scoring German.|
|*400~||FINN||Sulo Kolkka, took during the 105 day winter war||May have actually just been a propaganda name of Simo Hayha|
|380||Pyotr Alexeyevich Goncharov (44th Guards rifle regiment)||until July 1943|
|378||CAN (WWI)||Francis "Peggy" Pegahmagabow||an Ojibwa Indian from Ontario, was the highest-scoring Canadian sniper of WWI|
|367 [inc. a general]||Semen D. Nomokonov||sniper-only score|
|362||Ivan Petrovich Antonov (160th separate rifle company)|
|349||Abduhagi Idrisov (1232nd rifle regiment)||until March 1944|
|346 + 1 tank , 8 strong points||Philipp Yakovlevich Rubaho (393rd separate marine batalion)|
|345||Leonid Vladimirovich Butkevich (1331st rigle regiment)||until July 1943|
|345||Matthias Hetzenauer (Austrian) 3rd Mountain Div, all scored Between March 1944-May 1945||Died in 2004 at age 80, spent five years in Russian POW camp.|
|340||Ivan Ivanovich Larkin (1183rd rifle regiment)|
|331||Victor Ivanovich Medvedev (969th rifle regiment)|
|328||Ilya Leonovich Grigoriev (252th rifle regiment)|
|324||Ye. Nikolaev||from 1941 to 1942|
|315||Leonid Yakovlevich Butkevich||until July 1943|
|313||Zhambyl Yesheyevich Tulaev (580th rifle regiment)|
|309 [inc. 36 snipers]||Ludmila Mihaylovna Pavlichenko (54th rifle regiment)||female -The first Soviet citizen to be received at the White House was Ludmilla Pavlichenko, who made a tour of the U.S. and Canada in 1943.|
|307||Alexander Pavlovich Lebedev (1287th rifle regiment)||until June 1943|
|307||Vasiliy Alexandrovich Titov (301st separate artillery division)|
|305||Ivan Pavlovich Gorelikov (29th Guards rifle regiment)|
|300+||Gennadiy Iosifovich Velichko (1008th rifle regiment)||until July 1943|
|300||Moisey Timofeyevich Usik (547th rigle regiment)||until October 1943|
|~300||Nikolay Stepanovich Vedernikov (969th rifle regiment)||the data including machinegun score|
|~300||Natalia V. Kovshova and Maria Polivanova (528th rifle regiment)||female team|
|298 [inc. 5 snipers]
+ 2 tanks by grenades
|Ivan Filippovich Abdulov (849th rifle regiment)|
|279||Yakov Mihaylovich Smetnyov (210th rifle regiment)|
|279||Vitaliy Mefodievich Bezgolosov (227th rifle regiment)|
|250+||Mihail Stepanovich Sohin (44th Guards rifle regiment)|
|257||Josef "Sepp" Allerberg, (Austrian) 3rd Mountain Division Eastern Front 1942-45||Wrote book Sniper on Eastern Front in 2005|
|250||Fyodor Kuzmich Chegodaev (595th rifle regiment)||until May 1942|
|248 + 5 captives||Ivan Ivanovich Bocharov (248th rifle regiment)||until March 1944|
|245||Mihail Ignatievich Belousov (1179th rifle regiment)||until June 1943|
|242||Vasiliy Grigorievich Zaytsev (1047th rifle regiment)|
|240||Yegor Konstantinovich Petrov||not including machinegun score|
|226||David Teboevich Doyev (1133rd rifle regiment)|
|218||N.F. Semyonov (169th rifle regiment)||the data of June 1943|
|215||Vasiliy Shalvovich Kvachantiradze (259th rifle regiment)||until December 1944|
|209||Bruno Sutkus, 68th Infantry Division||fought with the Forest Brothers resistance in Lithuania in the 1950s then was sent to Siberia until 1990 when finally allowed to emigrate back to Germany. Wrote "Tagebuch eines Scharfschützen" [i.e. Inside the crosshair - the diary of a sniper] in 2003.|
|207||Vahit Gazizovich Galimov (100th Guards rifle regiment)|
|200+||Vasiliy Ivanovich Talalayev (12th Guards cavalry regiment)|
|~200||Noj Petrovich Adamia (7th marine brigade)|
|200||Friedrich Pein, 12th company Gebirgsjägerregiment 143 then in Jagerregiment 227||one of two snipers to have been awarded theRitterkreuz. Died in 1975.|
|200||Nikifor Samsonovich Afanasiev (250th Guards rifle regiment)||until March 1944|
|187||M.A. Abbasov||the data of the end of 1943|
|186||Nikolay Galushkin||the data of April 1943|
|170||Studentov||the data of November 1942|
|155||Alexander Andreyevich Kalinin (201st separate recon company)||until December 1941|
|150||UK (WWI)||Billy Sing, ANZAC serving under British Army WWI||201 unconfirmed killes|
|150||Pyotr Nikolayevich Sofronov (801st rifle regiment)|
|150||Alexey Abdurahmanovich Kurbanov (282nd Guards rifle regiment)||the data of 1943|
|148||Ivan Vasilievich Vazhyorkin (30th rifle regiment)||the data of 1943|
|143||Inna Semyonovna Mudretsova||female|
|140||Pyotr Ivanovich Golimenkov (1st rifle division)||during 1941|
|134||Ivan Dmitrievich Vezhlivtsev (1st rifle division)||the data of February 1942|
|130||Grigoriy Semyonovich Gaponov (453rd rifle regiment)||until December 1944|
|129||Alexey Afanasievich Mironov||until May 1943|
|126||Said Davydovich Aliyev (35th Guards rifle regiment)||until June 1942|
|125||Tatiana Ignatovna Kostyrina (691st rigle regiment)||female|
|125||Feodosiy Artyomovich Smolyachkov (14th separate motorized recon company)|
|119||Leonid Vasilievich Ivanov|
|117||Stepan Petrovich Loskutov (857th rifle regiment)||the data of July 1942|
|116||Georgiy Konstantinovich Fyodorov|
|116||Yanis Voldemarovich Vilhelms (92nd rifle regiment)||until 1942|
|115||CAN (WWI)||Henry Norwest, 50th Canadian Inf Battalion Western Front WWI||Killed 1918 in action.|
|109||USA(Vietnam)||Adelbert Waldron III||Highest scoring US sniper ace in any war.|
|103||USA(Vietnam)||Charles Mawhinney||USMC, Vietnam- highest Marine Corps scorer in history (has ten more confirmed kills over Gunny Hathcock)|
|102||Dmitriy Alexeyevich Gulyayev (1289th and 1106th rifle regiments)||the data of December 1942|
|100+||Roza Shanina||the data of 1944 ; female|
|~100||Fyodor Alexeyevich Harchenko (13th rifle regiment)|
|100||SoAfrica (WWI)||Neville Methven||World War one British commonwealth sniper on the western front 1915-1918|
|98||Yegor Ivanovich Dergilev (605th rifle regiment)|
|93||USA(Vietnam)||Gunnery Sgt Carlos Hathcock Snr, USMC||Vietnam 1960's-American|
|78||Pavel Yegorovich Shikunov (515th rifle regiment)|
|77||Nikolay Vasilievich Prohorov|
|75||Ivan Ivanovich Bogatyr (456th rifle regiment)|
|75||Maria I Morozova||female|
|73||Alexander Vasilievich Ivkov (629th rifle regiment)|
|65||Yegor Ivanovich Myreyev|
|64||Helmut Wirnsberger Another 3rd Mountain Division man|
|63||USA(Vietnam)||Joseph T. Ward||Vietnam U.S.M.C|
|~60 + 16 captives ; + 3 tanks||Dmitriy Grigorievich Sergienkov (166th Guards rifle regiment)|
|~60||US (GWOT)||Gunnery Sgt Jack Counglin USMC Accumulated in Somalia and Iraq||Current living high scorer - Author of Shooter|
|~60 including 47 gunners in one battle in October 1918||US (WWI)||Pvt Herman Davis, AEF WWI in France||Died in 1922 of TB contracted during the war. Farmer from Arkansas|
|30||Marie Ljalkova, Czech serving in Soviet Army WW2||Retired as a Colonel in the Czech Army, still alive at age 86 in Brno|
If you can add a data to this list, pleaseE-mail me.
Thanks for help to Yuri Nikitin, Alexander Abramov, John Baskeyfield.
On 1943, Soviet snipers included over 1000 woman-snipers; they were credited
with 12000+ confirmed kills during the war.
Top ten of Soviet snipers have 4200 confirmed kills, top twenty of Soviet snipers have 7400 confirmed kills.
snipers Z.Popova and V.Yakovleva, the numbers of kills are unknown for me.
marine sniper Yelizaveta Mironova, the known number of kills is 34 however is often credited with as many as 100 by Soviet texts.
(above- Photo credited as being taken at Kursk 1943, two unidentified snipers with PU-Equipped M91/30s)
Postwar snipers, Soviet Army 1950's
The Mosin Nagant m1891/30 with PE scope was standard front line issue until 1963.
below- Finns using Captured Russian Weapons, including a PE equipped M91. 1945
Training Soviet Snipers (translated from Soviet Texts)
|TRAINING THE SNIPERS||
Mark v. lonsdeyl
|By candidate in snipers
must be assigned the member of the subdivision of the quick response, who
showed the special habits of rotation with the rifles. These habits could be
acquired by it in the course of competitions, on the hunting or during the
appropriate preparation in the army.|
Unfortunately, not all subdivisions are guided by these criteria with the selection of candidates in snipers. We met with the candidates, who never in the life held in the hands rifle. In some subdivisions to this post is assigned old, that have the excess weight of colleagues, because they cannot run or they do not manage after the younger and healthier colleagues.
Sniper must be in the outstanding physical form. He must run, climb on the walls and to get down on the rope on the level with the best soldiers; for it it is necessary to bear heavier weapon than in others in addition to standard equipment. A good sniper must also know how to check heart and respiration. If his heart madly stuchit and it does choke after heavy lift to the roof of building, navryad it is worthwhile to expect from it by the marker of shooting.
Therefore very frequently as a result of this poor selection sniper school is converted into the courses of initial military training.
Not one book can learn by marker to shooting from the rifle and it is not possible to find replacement to the long hours of occupations under the indefatigable eye of competent instructor. Those colleagues, who are actually interested in the mastery of sniper skill, must compulsorily participate in different kind competitions in shooting from the rifle. In the course of such competitions the sniper obtains the possibility to meet with the snipers from other departments; to compare outfitting, to exchange experience, methods; for it it is necessary to shoot, it obtains the precise estimation of its level even it sees under the action of stress and after competitions, at how it should work.
The school of training snipers for the police subdivisions uses the weekly program, which includes the following objects,:
All these objects and some others are described in the book "sniper against the sniper"; therefore we will examine one - even two - the day programs, used by us. These programs are intended for the experimental snipers, to which it is necessary to grind its craftsmanship.
Snipers are trained and as the separate, independent element, and as the
part of the tactical assault team. At first we will discover the special
features of preparation specially for the snipers.
Shooting is conducted according to two head targets to distance 100 it is
meter from the position of lezha/s of support. Sniper can use a belt of
weapon, support, sandbags or another property, which he can have during
the operation. After command the sniper has the unlimited time for the
production of shot to the center of the left target (see figure), the
recharging and shot on the right target. With conducting of operation the
sniper does not have possibility to produce ranging or verifying shot, thus,
shot from the cold stem checks pointer and its armament and their ability to
strike purpose from the first shot. The second shot is intended for the
production in the sniper of quality to recharge weapon and to fire a shot
automatically, in the case, when purpose did not fall after the first shot.
Being located in the same firing position (lezha/s of support), sniper
has the unlimited time for the shooting of group of five shots.
Purpose must have the small, but clearly distinguishable aiming point with
the fulfillment of this exercise. It is intended for checking the stability
of rifle, sight, ammunition and pointer. You remember the aphorism:
"accuracy is the result of uniformity".
With the fulfillment of this exercise the snipers must produce five shots
from the position lying without the support (without the supports and the
sandbags) on the silhouette purpose of the reduced sizes. In the course of
exercise we control the ability of the snipers of news fire with the use of
a belt. With conducting of operation the firing position of sniper always
cannot allow the use of a support.
Pointers charge five cartridges and one shot on the head target is
produced for each command. This exercise is carried out from the position of
lezha/s of support, in this case the sniper must shoot during second from
the moment of supplying command. At the moment of supplying command the
sniper has already been find on the position and aims into his target
To each pointer in the line is assigned purpose (paper or
three-dimensional head target). Reverse counting from 5 to 1 is given. To
calculation 1 all snipers must simultaneously produce one shot. This
exercise is repeated five times.
After displacement in the section of shooting to distance 200 it is meter
snipers they must as fast as possible to prepare positions for the shooting
of lezha/s of support. Using known adjustment of sights or aim-off, snipers
produce five shots on the head target. Shooting can be achieved with the
time constraint or upon command (see above).
After displacement in the section of shooting to distance 300 it is meter
the snipers produce five shots, taking aim into the region of breast. Firing
position - lezha/s of support. To snipers must be given sufficiently time
for the production of well-aimed shot. The firing distance 300 it is meter
it is practically maximum for the police sniper in view of the fact that the
identification of purpose on face at the long range is very hindered.
Snipers are advanced by run from boundary 200 it is meter to boundary 100
it is meter they conduct fire according to purpose five by shots rapidly
from any position with the use of a support. Instructor evaluates the action
of stress and heavy respiration on the results of shooting.
These occupations are to a series of the exercises, which include 1 2
shots each, jettisoned in different and unknown distances. Shooting
to the unknown distances is the integral part of training sniper. For it
constantly it is necessary to define distances both for determining the
adjustment of sights and for razveddoneseniy.
The designation of such exercises consists in giving information about
the behavior of bullet under the varied conditions to sniper.
Since the sniper is the integral part capturing team, exercise in the
composition of subdivision they must be included in the program of training
|SNAYPERSKIYE/KONTRSNAYPERSKIYE OPERATIONS And BASES BY THE MARKER OF THE SHOOTING||
Mark v. lonsdeyl
Prepared and utilized mainly by different military formations, sniper
plays the key role in the demoralization and the disabling of live enemy
target. There are many publications, dedicated to the history of sniper
motion and to their application in different military conflicts. The
evolution of police snipers by many is obliged to that enormous quantity of
information and data on the tactics and to technology of application, gotten
in servicemen. However, this chapter is limited to the application of police
snipers and to those very specific responsibilities and parameters, within
the framework of which them it is necessary to work.
Command of snipers - this of eye and the ears of control center and of capturing team. Report the position of those suspected and their movement. Also report about those places, where you see no one. If you have a good survey of room, it is very important to know for capturing team, where there are no criminals, just as where they there is.
Candidate, selected for the sniper command, must possess the specific qualities:
Note: observer must possess the same qualities.
Snipers must occupy their positions immediately on the arrival into the region of conducting operation after report about the readiness and after the instruction of komandira/komandnogo post. This is done in order as fast as possible to begin the collection of information and to carry out restraining of those suspected.
The following armament and equipment is proposed as the necessary
Equipment. In addition to the usual tactical equipment, nosimomu by all colleagues of subdivision, the sniper and observer must have the following property:
* as it was said, the property enumerated above is addition to the usual collection (bulletproof vest, radio station, flask, etc.). Thorough attention must be given to the sizes and the weight of additional property so that it would not forge the action of subdivision. Each situation will determine, what property is required. However, you be assured in the fact that you have entire necessary.
Storage. It is necessary to pay to correct storage of weapon a constant attention. Pyramids for storing the weapon must not allow the presence of humidity. You do not store weapon in the cases for the carrying-over in the prolonged period. This is especially important for the rifles with the freely floating stems.
It is possible to name that basic requirement for the trainings so that they would be maximally realistic. Are given below some key moments, utilized with organization and conducting of trainings.
Note: The use of sport pneumatic rifles can it will essentially increase the professional level of sniper. They can be used practically in any situations and they make it possible to considerably decrease ammunition consumption. The targets, utilized for the shooting, must decrease to the sizes, which correspond to distances.
Both during the trainings and during the operations imperatively one should keep records in the sniper book. The main divisions of book are:
Sniper book is intended for three basic tasks: it makes possible for sniper to adapt rifle to the special conditions and the distances in the region of incident in real time; it makes it possible to more thoroughly study its weapon and its possibilities, and it also serves as the proof of professionalism in the law court.
As it was indicated earlier, there is an extensive information about the possibilities of cartridge 308 of caliber. The basic recommended type of bullet is the bullet with the opening in the head part, shell with the conical tail section, a weight 168 - 175 boundaries (10,7 - 11,2 grams). Also a good selection are 7 mm Of magnum, 300 winchester Of magnum and 50-1 calibr. to talk about the ballistics - nevertheless, which to argue about the religion, especially because there is an enormous quantity of excellent books and tables, which in detail describe this object. We do not intend to speak about the ballistics in this volume. Most important is the use of qualitative systems of arms, in which you are assured and practical work with them until you become professional. Experiment with the different ammunition in order to determine, what best anything they be suitable the rifle and for different situations (for example, for the shooting through the glass-, to the long range, etc.). After you were determined with producer and series of ammunition, imperatively one should stock up the large party of such ammunition and store them in the hermetically sealed corking. Even in one producer the cartridges of different series differ in their characteristics, although it is insignificant.
Military snipers solidly know about how influence weather conditions the flight of bullet. Despite the fact that they are trained in destruction of targets, find on the distances to 1500 it is meter, the same principles are applicable also to the snipers of police subdivisions. Despite the fact that in the majority of the cases is necessary to conduct fire on the distances, which do not exceed 70 it is meter, it is necessary to remember about the possibility of delivery of fire and to the long range. It is desirable to say in the addition that the snipers of police subdivisions must be ready to high-precision shots, especially in the situations with the seizure of the hostages, when for purposes of the rescuing of their life for sniper it is necessary to conduct fire according to the head of terrorist, partially closed with hostage. The small effect, exerted by the specified weather conditions to the accuracy of shooting, can not be taken into the attention in cases when it is necessary to neutralize single criminal or to ensure the fire support for capturing team. But, when is necessary accuracy less than into the angular minute, this effect can have decisive importance. Some considerations on the basic weather conditions are given below.
Note: Despite the fact that in the majority of the cases the police snipers do not conduct fire on the long range, we prepare snipers for the delivery of fire at the distance to 1000 it is meter with the use of both the optical and opened of sights the fact is that the long range require of the sniper of the most thorough observance of principles by the marker of shooting. Wind effect, press of hook, even beating of heart, considerably increase errors with the shooting to the long range. If sniper manufactures in himself habit to use the same principles with the delivery of fire to 70 it is meter, that also it is meter with the delivery of fire to 1000, then absolutely precise shooting becomes standard.
The method, which uses the clock dial (see diagram) is the standard
method of the classification of wind effect. The crosswind of the same force
is considered that the slanting wind slants bullet two times less, than.
Action of temperature on the initial velocity of the bullet of 308 calibers
Note: A change in the speed of bullet on 15 m/s corresponds to the deviation of the point of entry for 1 angular minute with respect to the height.
SKILL BY THE MARKER OF THE SHOOTING
The process of training sniper includes different stages, however, in it is necessary to suggest to candidates principles with the marker of shooting and to ensure the necessary quantity of ammunition and training time. Until sniper reaches the acceptable level of the accuracy of shooting, training other habits and skills does not have a sense. Not so there is much benefit in that sniper, who can successfully accomplish all required tasks, but one cannot strike purpose if necessary. Some basic principles are given below the marker of the shootings, which are also applicable for training of other specialists, armed by long-barrelled weapon.
Holding of the breath
Check the absence of the inclination of your weapon. This deficiency is
very disseminated and leads to the deflection of bullets to the left -
downward or to the right - downward. Have a habit to check the position of
the weapon before each shot.
Weapon with the optical sight
With the use of optical sights all given above principles soblyudayutsya. However, clearness and magnification in the images, reached with the aid of optics, facilitate work pointer. With the use of optics of pointers it must use another technology of the use of contact of cheek with the butt in view of the fact that the position of head with the shooting with optics somewhat higher than with the shooting without it this is very urgent for the weapon with the butt of the type of Monte Carlo. If rifle does not have this butt, then it is possible to prepare cover plate from the durable foam and tapes or from anything similar. It is very important so that the weapon would be convenient for pointer. Are given below some differences in the use of the open and optical sights:
Determination of the distance
Even with the presence of range-finder and sight, equipped with compensator, the skill to determine distance is the very most important question of training sniper. There are several methods of determination of distance, such, as determination from the map, with the aid of the card of distances, with the aid of the range-finder, by observing the deflections of bullets, determination with the aid of eye and value of object. The basic moments, which relate to the police snipers, are examined below.
This method is most accessible and expedient. Distance in this case is determined via postponement in the locality of sections on 100 it is meter. At the distance to 500 you is meter can with the adequate accuracy break distance in the sections on 100 it is meter (for the long range you will determine the middle of distance, you will calculate, how many sections on 100 it is meter it is plotted to it and then result multiply 2 times). With this method is interconnected the method of determination of distance from the value of objects, which can refine your calculations. This method requires the knowledge of the dimensions of any object at the specific distance. Such objects, as deer, cow, specific species of trees, windows and especially the figure of man appear differently at different distances. Sniper must improve the habits of determination of distances and manufacture his own formulas and methods. For example, measuring the parameters of the windows of buildings or the distance between the headlights of different automobiles, etc., and calculating the number of centimeters between them at the known distances, we obtain the outstanding method of determination of distances. Using the method of determination of distances from the relative sizes and the degrees of the visibility of the separate elements of objects, characteristic for the region of actions, you can recheck yourselves with the aid of the method of the postponement of 100-meter sections. Occupations on the shooting-range with the known distances are ideal time for the acquisition of these habits. Usually each firing line is noted in the locality at intervals into 100 it is meter. Use the purposes, which designate personnel, the (srednyaya figure of man is approximately 75 cm from the belt to the top). With the possibility use different methods for rechecking of results.
The use of cards of distances is very effective, when allows time situation. As an example can serve film on the object indicated, which during the specific time find under the observation. In the cards the characteristic orientators, which make possible for sniper to rapidly and accurately evaluate ranges to targets, are reflected. The card of distances is comprised relative to the firing position of sniper and purpose. On the card are indicated the distances to the easily identified local objects of such, as separate trees, lantern posts are the entrance doors of structures and so forth with the appearance of a purpose its arrangement relative to the nearest local object, substituted to the card of distances, it will immediately indicate precise distance to sniper.
Reconnaissance of the purposes
1. Preliminary search: the rapid inspection of specific sections (without
a constant mopping-up by the eyes of entire observation sector).
Attention without the presence of interest cannot be supported in the long period. Stimulate your interest for maintaining the attention in the case of the continuance of the futile observation (you be inventive).
4. Four types are indicative the purpose:
Note: one sign strengthens the perception of others it is indicative.
5. Basic tell-tale signs:
Note: enemy attempts to find the same signs in order to reveal you, which you search for, in order to reveal him.
Enumeration of control actions to - and during the shooting
After command engaged position necessary to verify the following:
Before and after each shot well prepared of pointers will automatically conduct the mental control of the following moments:
Analysis of the group of the entries
Analyzing nature and close grouping of each group, pointers are determined the reasons for deviations and it is removed them. Usually errors are the results of the following factors:
Shot from the cold stem
During the trainings create the data base for the shot from the cold
stem. Pay special attention to the first, after raschekhleniya, shot. Hot
stem influences the point of the entry of bullet. You remember, in the
real situation the shot from the cold stem is final shot. If situation
during the call allows, each command must on the turn conduct checking cold
stem on the nearest shooting-range for the dual checking of weapon.
Selection of the position
In the majority of the cases the limitedness of time with the incident or its position (in particular under the conditions of the populated area) do not make possible for the sniper command to select the most suitable place for the position. However, you must use as much as possible factors into your benefit. Masking and methods of movement are opened in chapter 2. Are given below some considerations on the selection of position under the conditions of the populated area:
Selection of the route
Are given below the basic questions, decided in the course of the selection of route.
1. Masking in the course of motion and on the position.
3. Study and the selection of the route:
Note: If you are discovered, enemy can be not in the state of news on you fire, but from this point on, he will know about your presence.
4. Characteristic of the populated areas:
5. Information sources:
Order of delivery of fire
This order or similar must become the part of the automatic actions of sniper - unique subconsious list.
Assault of building under the cover of the sniper
The commander of subdivision can make the decision to use a shot of sniper as the signal for the beginning of assault upon command or to await his shot on the appeared purpose. This method is very effective, but it requires the thorough organization of interaction. Use it in the course of occupations.
Evacuation of injured colleague under the cover of the sniper
Snipers can adapt for the cover of the evacuation of injured colleague or during the suddenly emergent threatening situations (sudden encounter with the enemy, unexpected opening fire by enemy, etc.). These situations also must be mastered in the course of trainings.
Interaction between several sniper commands
For the effective protection of the region of operation in sector of 360В° it is necessary to use as the minimum two sniper commands. You do select the use of the coordinated fire or other actions, knowledge by each sniper of its responsibilities and positions, where other colleagues are located is immutable rule. Sometimes capturing team can prove to be on the position, with which is not examined the object. In such cases the command of snipers can direct their motion. You remember that you must report that the fact that you see from your position and at the specific angle, so, in order to those, who are located on other positions we could correctly understand you. It is very easy under the conditions of stress to give command to whom - or to move to the left, without suspecting, that for it this can be entirely another direction. Compulsorily train this question in the course of occupations.
General Tid-bits of Sniper Lore
The term sniper was
developed during the 19th century during the British occupation of India.
an interview with a female
Soviet sniper; Klavdia Kalugina.
Originally Posted by Cpt. Hans Widhofner - 1967
The following article first appeared in the official Austrian military publication called TRUPPENDIENST (Troop Service) in the year 1967 and was written by an Austrian Army Officer, Captain Hans Widhofner. Among persons questioned were the two most proficient German snipers of the war with the comments of another good sniper added to obtain a well-rounded picture concerning the use of snipers in the German army.
Questions asked of the Snipers
Widhofner questioned three seasoned snipers individually. They are designated in the order A, B and C. All three were members of the Third Mountain Division of the former German Army. With respect to their person please note the following:
A. Matthäus Hetzenauer of Tyrol fought at the Eastern Front from 1943 to the end of the war, and with 345 certified hits is the most successful German sniper.
B. Sepp Allerberg of Salzburg fought at the Eastern Front from December 1942, to the end of the war, and with 257 certified hits is the second-best German sniper.
C. Helmut Wirnsberger of Styria fought at the Eastern Front from September 1942, to the end of the war and scored 64 certified hits (after being wounded he served for some time as instructor on a sniper training course).
1. Weapons used?
A. K98 with six-power telescopic sights. G43 with four-power telescopic sights.
B. Captured Russian sniper rifle with telescopic sight; I cannot remember power. K98 with six-power telescopic sights.
C. K98 with 1.5-power sights. K98 with four-power telescopic sights. G43 with four-power telescopic sights.
2. Telescopic sights used?
A. Four-power telescopic sight was sufficient up to a range of approximately 400 meters, Six-power telescopic sight was good up to 1,000 meters.
B. Used for two years a captured Russian rifle with telescopic sight; yielded good results, Six-power telescopic sight mounted on K98 was good.
C. 1.5-power telescopic sight was not sufficient; four-power telescopic sight was sufficient and proved good.
3. What is your opinion on increasing the magnification of your telescopic sights?
A. & B. Six-power was sufficient. There was no need for stronger scope. No experience with greater magnification.
C. Four-power is sufficient in both cases.
4. At what range could you hit the following targets without fail?
A. Head up to 400 meters. Breast up to 600 meters. Standing Man up to 700-800 meters.
B. Head up to 400 meters. Breast up to 400 meters. Standing up to 600 meters.
C. Head up to 400 meters. Breast up to 400 meters. Standing Man up to 600 meters.
5. Do the ranges indicated by you apply only to you, i.e. the best snipers, or also to the majority of snipers?
A. & B. Only to the best snipers.
C. To me personally as well as to the majority of snipers. A few outstanding snipers could hit also at longer ranges.
B added: Absolutely positive hitting is possible only up to about 600 meters.
6. What was the range of the furthest target you ever fired at, and what kind of target, size?
A. About 1,000 meters. Standing soldier. Positive hitting not possible, but necessary under the circumstances in order to show enemy that he is not safe even at that distance! Or superior wanted to satisfy himself about capability.
B. 400 to 700 meters.
C. About 600 meters, rarely more. I usually waited until target approached further for better chance of hitting. Also confirmation of successful hit was easier. Used G43 only to about 500 meters because of poor ballistics.
7. How many second shots / Additional shots were necessary per ten hits?
A. Almost never.
B. One to two. Second shot is very dangerous when enemy snipers are in the area.
C. One to two at the most.
8. If you had a choice, what weapon would you use and why?
A. K98. Of all weapons available at that time it had the highest accuracy for permanent use, besides it did not jam easily. G43 was only suitable to about 400 meters. It also had inferior precision.
B. K98 was best. The G43 was to heavy.
C. The G43 would be good if it did not jam easily and its capacity was as good as K98.
9. Today if you had the choice between the K98 and a semi-automatic rifle that does not easily jam and has the same capacity as the K98, which weapon would you take and why?
A. Snipers do not need a semi-automatic weapon if they are correctly used as snipers.
B. Semi-automatic loader, if its weight does not increase.
C. Semi-automatic loader. Faster firing possible when attacked by the enemy.
10. Were you incorporated into a troop unit?
All three belonged to the sniper group of the battalion. C was the commander of this group. They numbered up to 22 men; six of them usually stayed with battalion, the rest were assigned to the companies. Observations and use of ammunition as well as successful hits had to be reported daily to the battalion staff. In the beginning, the snipers were called up cut of the battalion, as the war continued and the number of highly-skilled snipers decreased, they were often assigned and given their orders by the division. In addition, a few marksmen in each company were equipped with telescopic sights. These men did not have special training but were able to hit accurately up to about 400 meters and carried out a great deal of the work to be done by "actual snipers". These specially equipped riflemen served in the company as regular soldiers. This is why they could not achieve such high scores as the "snipers".
11. Strategy and Targets?
A, B, C, Always two snipers at a time; one shoots, the other spots. Usual general order:- Elimination of observers, of the enemy's heavy weapons and of commanders, or special order, when all important or worthwhile targets were eliminated; for example! Anti-tank gun positions, machine gun positions. Etc. Snipers followed closely the attacking units and whenever necessary. Eliminated enemies who operated. Heavy weapons and those who were dangerous to our advance.
A added: In a few cases, I had to penetrate the enemies main line of resistance at night before our own attack. When our own artillery had opened fire. I had to shoot at enemy commanders and gunners because our own forces would have been too weak in number and ammunition without this support.
b. Attack during night:
A, B, C, As far as we can remember, no major attacks during night were conducted, snipers were not used at night; they were too valuable.
c. Winter attacks:
A. Clothed in winter camouflage I followed behind the front units. When the attack slowed down had to help by engaging machine gunners and Anti tank guns etc.
B, C, Good camouflage and protection against cold was necessary. No extensive ambushing possible.
A, B, C, Usually on my own within company detachment; order fire at any target or only worthwhile targets. Great success during enemy attacks since commanders can often be recognized and shot at long range due to their special clothing and gear such as belts crossed on chest, white camouflage in winter, etc. As a consequence, enemy's attack was prevented in most cases. Shot the respective leaders of enemy’s attack eight times during one attack. As soon as enemy snipers appeared we fought them until they were eliminated; we also suffered great losses. As a rule, the sniper watched for worthwhile targets at the break of dawn and remained in position until dusk with few interruptions. We were often in position in front of our own lines in order to fight the enemy more successfully. When enemy knew our position, we were forced to remain without provisions or reinforcements at such advanced position. During alarm or enemy attack, a good sniper did not shoot at just any target, but only at the most important ones such as commanders, gunners, etc.
e. Defence during night:
A, B, C, Snipers not used during night; not even assigned to guard duty or other duties. If necessary he had to take position in front of own lines in order to fight the enemy more effectively during the day.
f. Did you score successful hits by moonlight?
A. I was often called to action when there was sufficient moonlight since reasonably accurate hitting is possible with a six-power telescopic sight, but not with point and rear sight.
B. C. No.
g. Delaying action:
A, C, In most cases four to six snipers were ordered to rear guard and eliminate any enemy appearing; very good results. Use machine guns for rear guard only in emergencies since snipers delayed enemy's advance by one or two hits without easily revealing his own position.
B. No actual use of snipers, actual sniping not possible in mobile warfare since anybody shoots at appearing enemy.
12. In what warfare could the sniper be most successful?
A. The best success for snipers did not reside in the number of hits, but in the damage caused the enemy by shooting commanders or other important men. As to the merit of individual hits, the snipers best results could be obtained in defence since the target could be best recognized with respect to merit by careful observation. Also with respect the numbers, best results could be obtained in defence since the enemy attacked several times during a the day.
B. Defence. Other hits were not certified.
C. Best results during extended positional warfare and during enemy attacks; good results also during delaying action.
13. Percentage of successful hits at various ranges?
Up to 400 meters A. 65 percent C. 80 percent
Up to 600 meters A. 30 percent C. 20 percent
Additional information: A. This is why about 65 percent of my successful hits were made below 400 meters.
B. Do not remember. Mass of hits were below the range of 600 meters.
C. Shot mainly within range of 400 meters due to great possibility of successful hit. Beyond this limit hits could not be confirmed without difficulty.
14. Do these percentages and ranges apply to you personally or are they valid for the majority of snipers?
A. This information is applicable to the majority of snipers as well as to the beat snipers, for: the majority of snipers could hit with absolute certainty only within a range of 400 meters due to their limited skills, the best snipers could hit with reasonable certainty at longer ranges; they in most cases, however, waited until enemy was closer or approaching the enemy in order to better choose the target with respect to its merit.
B. Information is applicable to all snipers known to me in person.
C. Information is applicable to myself as well as to the majority of snipers.
15. On the average, how many shots were fired from one position?
A, B, C. As many as necessary.
b. Defence from secure position:
A, B, C, One to three at most.
c. Enemy attack:
A, B, C, Depending on worthwhile targets.
d. Combat against enemy snipers:
A, B, C, One to two at most.
e. Delaying action:
A, B, C, One to two was sufficient since sniper was not alone.
B added: During own attack as well as enemy's attack, hits were not confirmed.
16. What else is especially important in addition to excellent marksmanship?
A: Besides the generally known quality of a sniper it is especially important to be able to out sit the enemy. The better "Tactician at detail" wins in combat against enemy snipes. The exemption from commitment to any other duties contributes essentially to the achievement of high scores.
B. Calmness, good judgement courage.
C. Patience and Perseverance, excellent sense of observation.
17. From what group of persons were snipers selected?
A. Only people born for individual fighting such as hunters, even poachers, forest rangers, etc without taking into consideration their time of service.
B. Do not remember. I had scored 27 successful hits with Russian sniper rifle before I was ordered to participate in sniper training course.
C. Only soldiers with experience at the front who were excellent riflemen; usually after second year of service; had to comply with various shooting requirements to be accepted in the sniper training courses.
18. In what sniper training courses did you participate?
A, B, C: Sniper courses at the training area Seetaleralpe.
C. I was later assigned to the same course as an instructor.
19. Was it advisable to equip the sniper with a double telescope? What magnification did the double telescope have?
A. 6 x 30 enlargement was insufficient for longer distances. Later I had a 10 x 50 telescope which was satisfactory.
B. Double telescope was equally important as rifle. No further information.
C. Every sniper was equipped with a double telescope. This was useful and necessary. An enlargement of 6 x 30 was sufficient up to a range of about 500 meters.
20. Would you prefer a periscope which allows observation under full cover?
A. Was very useful as supplement (Russian trench telescope).
C. Was used when captured.
21. Were scissor stereo telescopes (positional warfare) used?
A, C. Yes, when available. Was used mutually by sniper and artillery observer.
22. What type of camouflage was used?
A,B,C. I have never used a fake tree stump, but I have used camouflage clothing. Camouflage of my face and hands and camouflage of my weapon in winter. (White cover, white wrapping, white paint)
B added: For two years I used an umbrella which was painted to match the terrain. In the beginning I always camouflaged face and hands well. Later on, less often.
23. Did you use technical means to mislead the enemy?
A. Yes, stuffed dummies, etc.
B. Yes; for example, dummy position with installed carbines which could be fired by means of a wirepull.
24. Did you use protective shields in positional warfare?
A, B, C. No.
25. What is your opinion on the use of tracer ammunition?
A, B, C. If possible, they should not be used at all in combat since they have easily revealed the position of the sniper. Tracer ammunition was mainly used for practice shooting as well as ranging at various distances. For this purpose every sniper carried with him a few tracer cartridges.
26. Did you use observation ammunition, i.e. cartridges that fired projectiles, which detonate upon impact?
A, B, C. Yes; upon impact a small flame as well as a small puff of smoke could be seen which allowed good observation of impact. By this method we could force the enemy to leave wooden houses, etc by setting tire to them.
Observation cartridges were used up to a range of about 600 meters; their dispersion was somewhat larger than that of heavy pointed cartridges (heavy pointed bullet).
27. How did you overcome side wind?
A. By my own judgement and experience. When necessary, I used tracer ammunition to determine wind drift. I was well prepared for side wind by my training at Seetaleralpe where we practised often in strong winds.
B. By own judgement. We did not shoot when side wind was too heavy.
C. No explanation since snipers do not shoot with strong winds.
28. Can you recall the rules pertaining to your behaviour when shooting at moving targets?
A, B, C: No; importance is own judgement and experience as well as fast aiming and fast firing.
29. Do you have any experience with armour piercing rifles?
A. Yes, several times I have fought against a "machine-gunner with a protective shield". I could hit small targets only up to 300 meters since dispersion was considerably larger than with K98. Besides, it was very heavy and clumsy and was not suitable as a sniper weapon. I did not use it against un-armoured targets.
B, C. No.
30. What was the method by which your hits were certified?
A, B, C, By observation and confirmation by an officer, non-commissioned officer or two soldiers. This is why the number of certified hits is smaller than the actual score